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Lyotard argued that the pagan gods, unlike Platonic philosophy and monotheism, never claimed to have universal truth, but instead were better than humans because they were better at deceit and metamorphosis. Socialisme ou Barbarie had an objective to conduct a critique lyotardd Marxism from within during the Algerian war of liberation. Blackwell Publishers Inc, Print. Having moved postmlderne teach at the new campus of Nanterre inLyotard participated in the events following March 22 and the tumult of May Lyotard has failed to notice that an underlying condition for consensus is also a condition for the successful communication of his own thought.
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Lyotard is fascinated by this admission, from one of the philosophical architects of the Enlightenment, that the mind cannot always organise the world rationally. University of Paris B. Lyotard argues that one day, in order for knowledge to be considered useful, it will have to be converted into computerized data. In The Differendbased on Immanuel Kant ‘s views on the separation of Understanding, Judgment, and Reason, Lyotard identifies the moment in which language fails as the differend, and explains it as follows: Lyotxrd, in putting forward a false argument against a rational consensus, Lyotard plays into the hands of the irrational forces that often give rise to injustice and differ ends.
This explains the feeling of anxiety. There are three major criticisms of Lyotard’s work.
It attacks Lyotard’s search postkoderne division over consensus on the grounds that it involves a philosophical mistake with serious political and social repercussions. Lyotard was interested in the aesthetic pkstmoderne of society that Malraux shared. Lyotard notes that it is based on mapping of society according to the concept of the language games. Here a politics, there a therapeutics, in both cases a laical theology, on top of the arbitrariness and the roaming of forces”.
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He favoured the startling and perplexing works of the high modernist avant-garde. The different and the sublime are negative terms that introduce a severe pessimism at the core of Lyotard’s philosophy.
This work-in-progress was published posthumously in the same year of Lyotard’s death. Writing the EventManchester: His writings in this period mostly concern with ultra-left politicswith a focus on the Algerian situation—which he witnessed first-hand while teaching philosophy in Constantine.
He developed these themes in particular by postmderne the sublime. The new definition of injustice is indeed to use the language rules from one ‘phrase regimen’ and apply them to another.
Das postmoderne Wissen : Jean-Francois Lyotard :
The SublimeJudaismsociology. Lyotard argues that this is the driving force behind postmodern science. Underlying any different there is a multiplicity of further differences; some of these will involve crossing the first divide, others will question the integrity of the groups that were originally separated. He is fiercely critical of many of the ‘universalist’ claims of the Enlightenmentand several of his works serve to undermine the fundamental principles that generate these broad claims.
The development of history is seen wisssen a steady progress towards civilization or moral well-being.
Jean-François Lyotard, Das postmoderne Wissen, , Personenregister
Rapport sur le savoir The Postmodern Condition: Both terms draw lines that cannot be crossed and yet they mark the threshold of that which is most valuable for the philosophy, that which is to be testified postmodegne and its proper concern. Lyotard has written extensively also on many contemporary artists of his choice: The term “libidinal” coming from the term libido which is used to refer to the psychoanalytical desires of our deeper consciousness.
However, the act of being able to bridge the two and understand the claims of both parties, is the first step towards finding a solution. Some objects are simply incapable of being brought neatly under concepts. From a Nietzschean and Deleuzian point of view James WilliamsLyotard’s postmodern lyotxrd took a turn toward a destructive modern nihilism that his early work avoids.
Das postmoderne Wissen
Ethical behaviour is about remaining alert precisely to the threat of this injustice, about paying attention to things in their particularity and not enclosing them within abstract conceptuality. A Survey of Modern Social Theory. InLyotard earned a State doctorate with his dissertation Discours, figure under Mikel Dufrenne —the work was published the same year.
Retrieved from ” https: Therefore, the phrase event remains indeterminate. His interdisciplinary discourse spans such topics as epistemology and communication, the human body, modern art and postmodern artliterature and critical theorymusic, film, time and memory, space, the city and postmodedne, the sublimeand the relation between aesthetics and politics.
Inwhile preparing for a conference on postmodernism and media theoryhe died unexpectedly from a case of leukemia that had advanced rapidly. Lyotard’s paganism was also feminist because he argued that women, like paganism, are antirational and antiphilosophical. Either there were no gas chambers, in which case there would be no wisxen to produce wisseb, or there were gas chambers, lyotarrd which case there would still be no eyewitnesses to produce evidence, because they would be dead.
In more than one book, Lyotard promoted what he called paganism and contrasted it with both the rejection of the pagan gods in Book II of Plato ‘s The Republic and the monotheism of Judaism. It refers to the experience of pleasurable anxiety that we experience when confronting wild and threatening sights like, wisseb example, a massive craggy mountain, black against the sky, looming terrifyingly in our vision. A sublime is the conjunction postmodsrne two opposed feelings, which makes it harder for us to see the injustice of it, or a solution to it.
In his writings of the early s, he rejects what he regards as theological underpinnings of both Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud: What we are witnessing, says Lyotard, is actually the differend; the straining of the mind at the edges of itself and at the edges of its conceptuality. During the next opstmoderne decades he lectured outside France, notably as a Professor of Critical Theory at the University of California, Irvine and as visiting professor at lyotagd around the world.
Lyotard argues that notions of justice and injustice do in fact remain in postmodernism. The meaning of a phrase—an event something happens –cannot be fixed by appealing ylotard reality what actually happened. Lyotard’s other book was named The Confession of Augustine and wossen a study in the phenomenology of time. Since Faurisson will accept no evidence for the existence of gas chambers, except the testimony of actual victims, he will conclude from both possibilities gas chambers existed and gas chambers did not exist that gas chambers did not exist.
With this said, I must also observe that this work is of vital importance in a period when revisionism of all stripes attempts to rewrite, and often simply deny, the occurrence of historical and cultural events, i.