The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State ( Cambridge Studies in Law and Society) [John Torpey] on *FREE* shipping. Daniel Nordman THE INVENTION OF THE PASSPORT Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey University of California, Irvine □H CAMBRIDGE. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Front Cover · John Torpey, Professor of Sociology John Torpey. Cambridge University .

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John Torpey. The Invention of the Passport; Surveillance, Citizenship and the State

Yet at the same time, the rise of liberal and natural law ideas proclaiming individual freedom and the inviolability of the person cast into disfavor older habits of “writing on the body” such as branding, scarification, and tattooing, as well as dress codes as means for identifying persons except when these methods of marking are voluntarily assumed, of course.

In March 1however, the Directory took up a proposal to change that law to make it conform to the fact that the district directories – formerly responsible, along with the municipalities, for giving their recommendation to the departements with respect to the legitimacy of requests for passports for departure from France – had since been sup- pressed.

Moreover, what is remarkable about the contemporary system of pass- port controls is that it bears witness to a cooperating “international society” as well as to an overarching set of norms and prescriptions to which individual states must respond. The state’s complete expropriation of the power to authorize movement would take some time to achieve, of course, but they were well on their way to making this monopoly a reality.

John Torpey : The invention of the passport. Surveillance, Citizenship and the State

Upon my arrival in the world’s most beautiful city, a young legal historian, Stefano Mannoni, insisted that the place for me to conduct the research I wanted to do was the Library of the Chamber of Deputies, situated happily in the shadow of the Pantheon in Rome.

Passports identity papers and the Nazi persecution of the Jews. The com- mittee’s spokesman began by noting that the law of 7 December had not yet been abrogated; that law, it will be recalled, required that the departements were to issue passports for departure, after hearing the advice of the district and municipal inbention concerning the legiti- macy of the request.

Bishop Le Coz passort on to advance the inge- nious argument that the law “would establish among our departements a chain of relationships and of surveillance that would be as favorable to the well-meaning man as it would be terrible to the scoundrel.

Fulbright Distinguished Chair in American Studies. Prior to the French Revolution, for example, descriptions of a person’s social standing – residence, occupation, family status, etc. Despite the fact that it took a harder line against footloose elements, it, too, was unable to gain mastery over the country. This concern has been especially prominent in the work of Anthony Giddens.


The route which they intended to take on their departure from the country was to be recorded in the passports they would require to leave France. Broader significance of the law. As a result, states with a rising interest in embracing their populations had to develop less invasive means to identify people. The result of this process was that workers were deprived of the capacity to produce on their own and became dependent upon wages from the owners of the means of production for their survival.

While it may be difficult for states to control movement outside their own borders, this has scarcely kept them from trying to implement such controls, and they may be able to do so effectively mainly because of their capacity to distribute rewards and punishments at home when the traveler returns. As a result, it decreed that all French citizens away from their domiciles and not in possession of a passport issued more recently than August were to appear before the municipality where they currently resided within twenty-four hours after the promulgation of the decree to report “their description, and to give their name, age, occupation, and domicile.

In the modern world, in contrast to the medieval period in Europe and much historical experience elsewhere, only states could “legitimately” use violence; all other would-be wielders of violence must be licensed by states to do so.

Thuriot, an outspoken enthusiast of passport controls, argued that the Assembly needed to be in a position to know when people had left France in order to be able to determine which of them wanted to join up with the emigres.

I believe we would do well to regard states as seeking not simply to penetrate but also to embrace societies, “surrounding” and “taking hold” of their members – individually and collectively – as those states grow larger and more administratively adept.

John Torpey

Among the many restrictions to which the French revolutionaries objected inventio a edict of Louis XIV that had forbidden his subjects to leave the territory of France, as well as to related requirements that those quitting the Kingdom torpry in possession of a passport authorizing them to do so.

In this respect, recent developments in sociology turn invehtion thinking in a fruitful direction when we try to make sense of how states actually embrace the societies they seek to rule, and to distin- guish their members from non-members. The asylum that [France] opens to foreigners will never be closed to the inhabitants of countries whose princes have forced us to attack them, and they will find in its womb a secure refuge. The welfare of the state is in this word: The Passport Question in the French Revolution 21 The passport problem at the end of the Old Regime 21 The flight of jojn King and the revolutionary renewal of passport controls 25 The Constitution of 1 and the elimination of passport controls 29 The debate over passport controls of early 32 A detailed examination of the new passport law ghe Passports and freedom of movement invwntion the Convention 44 Passport concerns of the Directory 51 3 Sweeping Out Augeas’s Stable: Despite the relative ease with which passport requirements could often be skirted, these controls on movement appeared among the tlrpey complaints regarding royal government and feudal organization that were presented in the cahiers de doleances during the meeting of the Estates General convened at Versailles in early Retrieved August 30, Although they go unmentioned in the text of the decree, this measure was obviously directed at the emigres, who were thought to have rendered themselves unworthy of public largesse during the previous six months by fleeing the patrie’m its hour of need.


It is thus useful to examine the debate in some detail. Yet because nation-states are both territorial and membership organizations, they must erect and sus- tain boundaries between nationals and non-nationals both at invebtion physical borders and among people within those borders. The steady stream of decrees and the frequency with which passport matters appear on the agenda of the Convention themselves point to this conclusion.

This would not be the last time that extralegal elements would contest the state’s monopoly on the legitimate right to inventiion movement. Passport controls and regional integration in postwar Europe Conclusion: States’ ability to “embrace” their own subjects and to make distinctions between nationals and non-nationals, and to track the movements of persons in order to sustain the boundary between these two groups whether at the border or nothas depended to a considerable extent on the creation of documents that make the relevant differences knowable and thus enforceable.

It was this version that was ulti- mately adopted as article 5 of the passport law of 1 February – 28 March Inventlon of this aim necessitated greater precision in identifying them.

There are, of course, virtues to this system – principally of a diplomatic nature – just as the expropriation of workers by capitalists allows propertyless workers to 4 COMING AND GOING survive as wage laborers paspsort the expropriation of the means of violence by states tends to pacify everyday life.