Jatropha mollissima är en törelväxtart som först beskrevs av Johann Baptist Emanuel Jatropha mollissima ingår i släktet Jatropha och familjen törelväxter. Rese arch Articl e Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Bail Decreases Local Effects Induced by Bothropic Venom Jacyra. Biomed Res Int. ; Epub Oct Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Bail Decreases Local Effects Induced by Bothropic.
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Snakebites are a serious worldwide public health problem. The specific treatment consists of antivenom serum therapy, which has some limitations such as inability to neutralize local effects, difficult access in some regions, risk of immunological reactions, and high cost.
Thus, the search for alternative therapies to treat snakebites is relevant. Jatropha mollissima Euphorbiaceae is a medicinal plant popularly used in folk medicine as an antiophidic remedy. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the mollissim of the aqueous leaf extract from J. High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection analysis and Mass Spectrometry analysis of aqueous jollissima extract confirmed the presence of the flavonoids isoschaftoside, schaftoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin.
Jatropha mollissima – Wikidata
Local skin hemorrhage, local edema, leukocyte migration, and myotoxicity were significantly inhibited by the extract. These results demonstrate that J. Snakebites represent a serious worldwide public health and social problem because of their high frequency, morbi-mortality, and sequelae left in the victims.
Moreover, accidents caused by snakes are considered a neglected disease mainly in Africa, Latin America, Asia, and Oceania [ 12 ].
Jatropha mollissima – Wikipedia
Data indicate that, worldwide, more than 5 million people suffer snakebites every year, resulting in 25, todeaths and leaving approximatelypeople with permanent disabilities [ 1 ].
In Brazil, an estimated number of 25, snakebites occur per year [ 3 ]. The Bothrops snakes have high complexity and variation in the protein composition of their venom.
This variation is due to factors such as diet, age, seasonal variation, sexual dimorphism, and geographical origin, which occurs within the species, interfamily, intergenus, interspecies, intersubspecies, and intraspecies [ 56 ]. The pathophysiological process of the snake envenoming is complex and includes the combined action of several toxins such as snake venom metalloproteinases SVMPssnake venom serine proteinases SVSPsphospholipases A 2 PLA 2hyaluronidases, bradykinin-releasing enzymes, lectins, L-amino oxidases, and pharmacological mediators [ 78 ].
Bothrops envenomation causes mainly immediate local tissue damage including pain, edema, local hemorrhage, and myonecrosis and systemic effects cardiovascular alterations, coagulation, and renal alterations [ 910 ]. Currently, the intravenously antivenom serum therapy is the only specific treatment for snakebites.
The antivenom, however, has some limitations such as difficult access in some regions, risk of immunological reactions including serum sicknesshigh cost, and limited effectiveness in the improvement of the mollisxima tissue damage [ 1112 ]. Administration of the antivenom may prevent death but does not prevent local tissue damage and resultant disabilities. The mllissima inhibition of local effects due to the delay of receiving the serum or due to the low efficacy is the leading cause of amputations, which can lead to serious social, economic, and health negative impacts, given that most victims live in rural areas [ 13 ].
So, the search for new complementary therapies to treat snakebites has become of utmost importance. In this scenario, the use of many medicinal plants has been an old practice in folk medicine against snakebites, especially in tropical and subtropical regions such as Africa, Asia, and Jatrohpa America [ 1415 ].
Jatrophaa Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the Jatropha species are used not only in traditional medicine to cure various ailments, but also as ornamental plants and energy crops [ 17 ]. Several known species from genus Jatropha have been reported for their medicinal uses, chemical constituents, and biological activities such as Jatropha curcasJatropha ellipticaJatropha gossypifoliaand Jatropha mollissima [ 1718 ].
This plant is endemic in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. In folk medicine, it is widely used for various purposes, especially as antiophidic mlllissima 19 — 21 ] and anti-inflammatory [ 22 ] remedies, healing [ 20 ], veterinary vermifuge [ 19 ], and treatment of renal inflammation and loss of appetite [ 20 ].
Some studies have shown that this species has antioxidant [ 23 ], antimicrobial [ 24 ], and antihelmintic activities [ 25 ]. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of the aqueous leaf extract of J.
Our results indicate that J. All other reagents and solvents used were of analytical grade. The water used was purified by reverse osmosis.
The botanical identification of the material was performed by Dr. After identification and confirmation of the plant species, the leaves were dried at room temperature, triturated with an industrial blender, and stored in hermetically sealed bottles until used for aqueous extract preparation. The venom was weighed and dissolved with phosphate buffer saline PBS and the protein content quantified by the Bradford method [ 26 ]. On the day of the experiment, the animals were placed in the experimental room for at least one hour prior to tests, for acclimation.
The total number of animals used jayropha The aqueous extract obtained after vacuum filtration was jattopha and dissolved in PBS at adequate concentrations for the biological assays. The extract was fractionated by liquid-liquid partition in order to obtain the dichloromethane CH 2 Cl 2ethyl acetate AcOEtn -butanol BuOHand residual aqueous fractions, respectively. Two different mobile jatrolha were used: The retention factor, behavior, and color of the spots were compared jateopha the chromatographic profiles of the reference substances.
Flow elution was 0.
jatropua The aqueous leaf extract of J. The lyophilized aqueous extract of J. The final concentration of the extract was 2. The extract was prepared in triplicate and analyzed. To confirm the presence of the uatropha in the aqueous extract of J. After total dissolution and prior to analysis, the samples and solvents were filtered through a 0. To identify the chromatographic signals 1 and 2 and to confirm the signals 3, 4, 5, and 6, the aqueous leaf extract of J.
The mobile phase was comprised of acetic acid 0. The mass spectrometer source parameters were set as follows: The electrospray ionization ESI source was operated in the positive and negative ionization mode. The data were acquired using amplitudes of 0. The mollissimaa were processed through Bruker Compass Data Analysis 4. The hemorrhagic activity of B.
After photo documentation of the produced hemorrhagic halos, jatropja hemorrhagic skin was removed and weighed. The group in which animals received s. Jartopha group that received s.
The edematogenic activity of B. Groups of 5 animals were treated with different doses of J. A group of animals that received i. Another group that received i. The ability of the B. After 6 hours B. The samples were then diluted 1: The myotoxic activity of B. After 30 min, all the animals received an intramuscular i. A group in which animals received i.
For phytochemical analysis by TLC, the aqueous extract was fractionated by liquid-liquid partition to obtain fractions with different polarities, thus facilitating the chromatographic analysis of the compounds. Moreover, the TLC analysis was performed with different developers in order to identify the classes of compounds presented in the aqueous extract of J. The chromatograms show spots suggestive of the presence mllissima phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and saponins Figure S2. By co-TLC analysis, it was possible to molliseima the presence of the flavonoids apigenin Rf 0.
For confirmation of presence of such substances, analyses were performed by HPLC. It is possible to observe that J. Glycosylated derivatives from these two flavonoids, orientin and isoorientin derived from luteolin and vitexin and isovitexin derived from apigeninhave similar absorption II bands for these aglycones, differing mainly by the maximum absorption of the I band.
The peaks 3, 4, 5, and 6 had their identity confirmed as, respectively, isoorientin tR Peaks 1 tR Applying the systematic analyses carried out by Ferreres and coworkers [ 3132 ], it was possible to identify the compounds as schaftoside and isoschaftoside flavonoid, mollisdima. According to such report, preferential fragmentation is of the sugar moiety at the 6- C rather than the 8- C position.
Considering the preferential fragmentation at the C -6 position, chromatographic signal 1 corresponded to the isoschaftoside flavonoid and chromatographic signal 2 corresponded to the schaftoside flavonoid. Furthermore, peaks 3, 4, 5, and 6 were confirmed as isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin as suggested by the coinjection iatropha with these standards see Section 3.
All the signals present in Table 1 are in full agreement with the previous published data.
The subcutaneous injection of B. All doses of the Jatrlpha. This result can be seen with the decrease in hemorrhagic halo weight and with the visual decreased halo diameter, in each dose tested.
jatrophz On the other hand, for B. A lower dose of the B. The treatment with dexamethasone significantly reduced the edema induced by both venoms. It could be observed that the J. Maximum inhibition for dexamethasone was Leukocyte infiltration was evaluated in the peritoneal cavity at the time of 4 hours after the intraperitoneal injection of the venoms. The group with the injected venoms showed an increase in the number of white cells molliseima to the control PBS group count. Figures 5 a and 5 b show the total number of leukocytes in the peritoneal cavity of the animals treated with the J.
In both cases, all tested doses of the J. The differential count of the leukocyte infiltration was evaluated. All mollissimw results show that the animals treated with the J. Treatment with dexamethasone reduced serum CK induced by these venoms.
Table 2 summarizes the maximum percentage of inhibition of the J.