Correlations between in vitro and in vivo data (IVIVC) are often used during pharmaceutical development in order to reduce development time and optimize the. This presentation gives a bird’s eye view on Dissolution in context with IVIVC. It discusses various levels of Correlations currently in practice. Invitro Invivo study & their correlation shortens the drug development period, economizes the resources and leads to improved product quality. Increased activity.

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In terms of BE, it is assumed that highly permeable, highly soluble drugs housed in rapidly dissolving drug products will be bioequivalent and that, unless major changes are made to the formulation, dissolution data can be used as a surrogate for pharmacokinetic data to demonstrate BE of two drug products.


IVIVC – Wikipedia

Modified-release dosage forms typically require dissolution testing over multiple time points, and IVIVC plays an important role in setting these specifications [ 2439 ]. Dissolution of eight IR batches of ATV was tested using a novel dissolution apparatus allowing dynamic simulation of stomach and small intestine.

Thus, during step 1 and with a particular desired product, appropriate in vitro targets are established to meet the desired in vivo profile specification. However, the difficulty arises in the variation to be allowed around each time point [ 37 ]. It is a drug-development tool that allows estimation of the contributions of three major factors, dissolution, solubility and intestinal permeability that affect oral drug absorption from IR solid oral dosage forms.

IVIVC can be used in the development of new pharmaceuticals to reduce the number of human studies during the formulation development. Even though the formulations and methods used at this stage are not optimal, they promise better design and development efforts in the future. Water and simulated gastric fluid then are the default mediums for most of the Class I drugs. The detailed information on the method design is given in Table 1. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Work to date has shown that the convolution-based method is superior, but when presented with nonlinear data even this approach will fail. The instrument is a computer controlled artificial digestive tract, designed for dynamic dissolution testing of oral dosage forms and consisting of four compartments: Instead, more sophisticated numerical deconvolution was employed. In contrast, in vitro dissolution tests for a modified release dosage form require at least three time points to characterize the drug release.


The process of setting dissolution specifications in the presence of an IVIVC starts by obtaining the reference pivotal clinical batch dissolution profile. A more serious limitation of this approach is that it often requires multiple products having potentially different in vivo release characteristics slow, medium, fast.

A bioavailability study should be performed to characterize the plasma concentration versus time profile for each of the formulation. The size of this pilot pharmacokinetic study will vary depending on the inherent variability of the drug itself but typically range from 6 to 10 subjects [ 5 ].

The mean residence time here is the average of the residence time in the stomach, small intestine and the colon. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. The relationship between measured quantities in vitro release and plasma drug concentrations is modeled directly in a single stage rather than via an indirect two stage approach.

As for the nonbuffered batches, these generally provided higher fraction dissolved as they did not contain the CaCO 3 buffering agent.

As shown in Figure 17in vivo time scale was scaled nonlinearly, however with a simple reversible mathematical function. Two constants were introduced for linear scaling of in vitro profile and were optimized with nonlinear Solver: Having an established IVIVC can help avoid bioequivalence studies by using vorrelation dissolution profile from the changed formulation, and subsequently predicting the in vivo concentration-time profile [ 2441 ].

The establishment of correlation correltaion, as described in the FDA or USP definitions, to use various parameters summarized in following table: A universal dissolution method was employed which simulated the physiology of human gastrointestinal tract, including the precise chyme transit behavior and biorelevant conditions.

For this class of drugs such as cimetidine Permeability is the rate controlling step in drug absorption. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Any well designed and scientifically sound approach would be acceptable for establishment of an IVIVC.

It is relatively easy to establish a multipoint dissolution specification for modified-release dosage forms. Another approach, has been proposed is based on systems of differential equations [ 15 ].

Providing the pharmaceutical industry with oral drug development tools –

Then, the pharmacokinetic parameters are estimated using a nonlinear regression tool or obtained from literatures reported previously. Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals Ann Jose ankara escort. In this level of correlation, the mean in vitro dissolution time MDT vitro of the product is compared to either mean in vivo residence time MRT or the mean in vivo dissolution time MDTvivo. The above exercise in achieving the widest possible dissolution specification allows majority of batches to pass and is possible only if a valid Level A model is available [ 24 ].


While the dissolution profile must be well defined, the simplification in dissolution specification as in Class I is applicable for immediate release dosage forms where drug input to the intestine is gastric emptying rate controlled.

Multiple point level C correlation may be used to justify a biowaivers provided that the correlation has been established over the entire dissolution profile with one or more pharmacokinetic parameters of interest. The normal test duration for immediate release is 15 to 60 minutes with a single time point.

In Vitro?In Vivo Correlation (IVIVC): A Strategic Tool in Drug Development

Authors would like to thank company-Zentiva Group, a. Deconvolution results for nonbuffered batch02 and batch It can often involved further in vitro method development in the context of the observed results, but clearly with the objective of establishing a definitive IVIVC. The pH in stomach ivjv was left to change, being influenced by the studied formulation.

This class of drugs present significant problems for effective oral delivery.

Dissolution in jejunum compartment a and addition of two additional time points b. Research organisations often use this method to reduce costly and time intensive trials on animals and humans during formulation development. Depending on the nature of the correlation, further changes to the dissolution method can be made.

Level A correlation is the most preferred to achieve; since it allows bio waiver for changes in manufacturing site, raw material suppliers, and minor changes in formulation. Since atorvastatin PK p. In this phase plasma drug concentration profiles are predicted and compared to the observed time courses for different formulations Correltion 3.