del sistema de turbina-generador instalado. Producción. Nuestro centro de producción (Orléans, Francia) está equipado con máquinas de tecnología punta. Los generadores síncronos constituyen el equipo más costoso en un sistema de potencia. Como consecuencia de los posibles fallos que se presentan tanto. CONTROL DE FRECUENCIA EN GENERADORES SÍNCRONOS Carol Sánchez Mateo Rodríguez Fredy Salazar Luz Dary Garcia Universidad.

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The first model is the equivalent scheme of the system under normal condition operation while the second one is equivalent to the system working under fault feneradores. However, by using the proposed alarm-trip logic, remarkable improvements could be obtained in the case of detecting high impedance ground faults. Generadored, the basic aspects of the analyzed methods are presented. As described before, equations from 8 to 11 are obtained by applying the Millman theorem to the system presented in figure Finally, the different schemes were tested in the case of nine values of third harmonic voltage nine different load conditions to cover all variation range.

Overvoltage of the third harmonic component Scheme 2. Generacores transition from wind only to wind diesel mode in an generadires wind diesel system with a battery-based energy storage system. Using the classical thresholds strategy to determine the maximum fault resistance to be detected in the case of the undervoltage scheme, different fault situations were analyzed using the circuit presented in figure As is mentioned before, the third harmonic voltage appears as zero-sequence quantities.

Figure 14 Third harmonic voltage typical variations caused by changes in the output active power.

### GENERADORES SINCRONOS by Jorge Rosas on Prezi

In such cases where the curve which relates the normal value of the third harmonic voltages and the generator load is not available, the voltage threshold based strategy helps to implement a very constrained application using the undervoltage scheme.

A Virtual Synchronous Machine implementation for distributed control of power converters in SmartGrids. Theoretical evaluation of the non-faulted and faulted models.

From figure 11V 1 and V 2 are the equivalent voltages as seen from the left and the right sides of E3n at the faulted winding. According to the results, it is shown that the scheme 1 Undervoltage of the third harmonic component has a lower capability to detect the abnormal behavior in case of high resistant faults.

These variations are particular for each one of the generator machines and are due small imperfections in the winding distribution during the fabrication process, which cause small voltage unbalances [9].

## ES2548786T3 – Generadores síncronos estáticos – Google Patents

Finally, the alarm-trip logic proposed helps to deal with the variation in the magnitude of the sinronos harmonic of voltage caused by load changes as it is presented in figures 23 and Figure 8 Zero-sequence circuit Sincrronos 9 Simplified zero-sequence circuit Solving circuit proposed in figure 9equations 6 and 7 are then obtained for the voltage at the neutral and terminals, respectively. John Wiley and Sons. Impact of FACTS controllers on the stability of power systems connected with doubly fed induction generators.

In figure 8 it is possible to see this zero-sequence circuit obtained from figure 7where Rn is the grounding resistor, Cg is the phase capacitance to ground of the generator stator winding, Cp is the total external phase capacitance of the system as seen from the generator, and E 3 is feneradores generated third harmonic voltage.

Generxdores first strategy is based on the determination of the normal values of the third harmonic of voltage at the terminals and the neutral of the synchronous generator. Considering that the third harmonic voltages are strongly related to the generator load as it is graphically presented in figure 14it is important to determine how this dependence affects the detectable values of the fault resistance in all of the analyzed protection schemes.

The equivalent circuit developed for non fault generxdores is presented in figure 7.

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Department of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation. The three previously described protective schemes are here analyzed according to two models, previously developed to represent the stator winding equivalent circuit [7]. Fault resistance estimation using the voltage thresholds The first strategy is based on the determination of the normal values of the third harmonic of voltage at the terminals and the neutral of the synchronous generator. Finally, figure 9 is obtained as a simplification of figure 8.

The obtained results shows small variations in the maximum fault resistance detected, showing the reduced dependence of the proposed protection genrradores and the synchronous generator load condition. Figure 1 Magnitude of the third harmonic at the stator winding considering non fault situations.

Finally, this work may help to develop useful protective devices which detect ground faults at the synchronous generator stator windings. This paper focuses on the application of the third harmonic principle and is devoted to present a comparative analysis and an geneardores of three different approaches.

This circuit was solved according to the Millman theorem properties, and it is graphically presented in figure 11 [13].

Figure 1 shows the third harmonic voltage distribution generated along the stator windings during normal operating conditions, considering variations in the machine load [4, 5]. Methodology Method of third harmonic This method uses a comparison of the third order component of the voltage measured at the synchronous generator terminal Vt or at the neutral Vn connections. Verfahren und Schaltungsanordnung zur sensorlosen, elektrischen Rotorlagemessung einer permanent erregten Synchronmaschine.

Table 2 Maximum fault resistance values detectable by the analyzed protective methods using the voltage thresholds Undervoltage, overvoltage and ratio of the third harmonic of voltage Fault resistance estimation using the alarmtrip logic As proposed improvement of the protection method, the alarm-trip logic previously explained is considered to determine the maximum values of fault resistance which could be detected in the case of ground faults.

Finally, the use of the ratio scheme shows an interesting behavior making possible the detection of high impedance faults. Fault resistance estimation using the alarmtrip logic. Figure 4 Protective scheme used to detect under voltage of the third harmonic Figure 5 Protective scheme using over voltage of the third harmonic Ratio of the third harmonic components Scheme 3 This method is based on the comparison of third harmonic voltages using several mathematic relations which should make the protective device more susceptible to the variation of these voltages.

Schemes 2 and 3 Overvoltage and ratio of the third harmonic components, respectively have a better performance according to the analyzed cases, because the capability to detect high fault resistances is higher than in the case of scheme 1. The logic used to determine the presence of trip or alarm for both, under and overvoltage of the third harmonic component schemes 1 and 2, respectivelyis presented in figure 13, and it is based on the comparison of the values of the third harmonic of the voltage measured denoted with the additional subindex m and those normal values as the present in figure From the results obtained in a real synchronous generator there are advantages of the scheme based on the ratio of the voltages measured at terminals and neutral, in the case of using the voltage threshold strategy.

Decentralized parallel operation of inverters sharing unbalanced and nonlinear loads.

As proposed improvement of the protection method, the alarm-trip logic previously explained is considered to determine the maximum values of fault resistance which could be detected in the case of ground faults.

Modulation and control of three-phase paralleled Z-source inverters for distributed generation applications. This relay detects variations at the magnitude of the third harmonic causing alarm or trip.

These three different methods are based in voltage measurements at the neutral and terminal connections, and also in the ratio of these measurements.

### EST3 – Generadores síncronos estáticos – Google Patents

Figure 5 Protective scheme using over voltage of the third harmonic. Considering a ground fault at the neutral connection, the third harmonic at this node decreases to zero. Autonomous control of interlinking converter with energy storage in hybrid AC—DC microgrid.

Additionally, E 3n corresponds to kE 3 and E 3t is associated to 1-k E 3where both are the third harmonic voltages produced by the stator winding between the generator neutral and the ground-fault location k, and between the generator terminal and the ground fault location krespectively.

The flowing current I is then obtained as it is presented in Equivalent circuit for coil incorporated in circuit simulator, circuit simulator and method of preparation of same, and storage medium of circuit simulator program.

Improvement of the third harmonic based stator ground fault protection for high resistance grounded synchronous generators.