This image is a work of a U.S. military or Department of Defense employee, taken or made as part of that person’s official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal. This page contains the US Army Field Manual on Survivability. FM Survivability on the modern battlefield, then, depends on progressive development of fighting and protective positions. That is, the field survivability.

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When possible, the main Threat force maneuvers its advance guard to a flank and attacks. The base for the revetment must stand on firm ground and dug at a slope of 4: Boreholes are dug to a depth two thirds that of desired excavation. Medical Stations The amount of equipment emplaced at a medical clearing station varies from mission to mission. Rock Direct and indirect fire fragmentation penetration into rock depends on the rock’s physical properties and the number of joints, fractures, and other irregularities contained in the rock.

Signature acquisition equipment, smoke, dust, contrails associated with firing, and siting requirements allow them to conduct their mission. Drairajp samp Fki-ur iJr-tiinud uigr-idad towards sump Large Etcmtis uE bOTIom Walls Walls of fighting and protective positions are of two basic types-below ground earth or revetted earth and aboveground.

Their fire degrades the effectiveness of enemy strike and reconnaissance aircraft by forcing the enemy to evade friendly air defense. The pulse also damages vulnerable electrical and electronic equipment at ranges up to 5 kilometers for a kiloton surface burst, and hundreds of kilometers for a similar high-altitude burst.

Also, a low structure silhouette design makes a structure harder to engage with direct fire. The facing material is usually much thinner than that used in a retaining wall.

Grenade sumps are usually dug at the bottom of a position’s front wall where water collects.


Topographic operations engineering missions include detailed terrain analysis, terrain overlays, trafficability studies, evaluation of cover and concealment, soils maps, and other information to base mobility, countermobility, and survivability decisions. The timestamp is only as accurate as the clock in the camera, and it may be completely wrong. Open or partially open emplacements afford no protection from chemical or biological attack.


Excessive clearing is prevented in order to reduce early enemy acquisition of the position. The portion is -CHmouf leged wilh natural uvgatsticn a-f earno uflage netting.

Insures engineer tasks are supervised, whether or not they are performed using engineer labor. Following is a discussion of materials used to build floors, survivabillity, and roofs of positions. When possible, protective parapets and revetments are built.

Crew-served weapons position, individual fighting position, and covered routes between battle positions. Using the protection criteria discussed earlier, and an up-to-date detailed survivabiliyy analysis portraying the degree of natural protection, a commander develops and ranks a detailed tactical construction plan to support survivability efforts.

The Threat can plan for the total destruction of a strongpoint by delivering up to rounds of artillery, or rounds from their medium rocket launcher, per meter square. Also, with its low ignition point, wood is easily destroyed by fire from thermal radiation. Tunneling in hard rock is slow and survibability impractical. If explosive excavation is used, the large area of earth spray created by detonation cm camouflaged or removed by first placing tarpaulins or scrap canvas on the ground prior to charge detonation.

They are employed as protective positions and used to connect individual holes, weapons positions, and shelters. Shelters differ from fighting positions because there are usually no provisions for firing weapons from them. Frontal cover requires the position to have the correct length so that soldiers have adequate room; the correct dirt thickness 3 feet to stop enemy small caliber fire; the correct height for overhead protection; and, for soldiers survivabiligy to the oblique, the correct frontal distance for elbow rests and sector stakes.

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Other Materials Expedient materials include steel pickets, landing mats, steel culverts, steel drums, and steel shipping consolidated express CONEX containers. Flank and rear cover protects soldiers against the effects of indirect fire bursts to the flanks or rear of the position, and the effects of friendly weapons located in the rear for example, packing from discarded sabot rounds fired from tanks.

These components must also resist blast and ground shock effects from detonation of high explosive rounds which place greater stress on the structure than the weight of the components and the shielding. The screen initiates detonation at a distance where only fragments reach the structure. Plans are prepared, orders are issued, and staff supervision is conducted. When the situation permits, shelters are constructed for sleeping or other activities.


Provides advice and repair estimates for fighting and protective positions built or occupied by supported units. Protection for each of these positions depends greatly on their battlefield location and on the mission’s complexity. The Survivability portion of the engineer estimate is prepared. Unless separate overhead cover is constructed, the positions do not provide blast protection from indirect fire super quick, contact, or delay fuze shells.

These formations are initially dispersed to limit nuclear destruction, but are concentrated enough to meet offensive norms for attack. They must also understand the principles of fighting positions and protective positions, as well as the level of protection needed, given limited engineer assistance.

Maneuver Commander FM The maneuver commander is responsible for organizing, planning, coordinating, and effectively using engineer resources to accomplish the survivability mission. Light forces readily use local materials to develop fighting positions and bunkers rapidly. Frontal, side, and rear parapets greatly increase the protection of occupants firing their weapons.

5-13 The ceme take on moisture. Drainage sumps, shown below, or drains are also installed when possible. All apart need a ceraf jI concealment from Mdiny direct tbHrvAtjiofl. Threat attacks of strongly-defended positions will usually have a heavy air and artillery preparation. Wood Direct and indirect fire fragmentation protection using wood is limited because of its low density and relatively low compressive strengths.

The primary means for aircraft protection on the ground is a combination of terrain masking, cover and concealment, effective camouflage, and dispersion. A third table is converting dimensioned to round timber. Phase I Combat assault and initial clearing consists of securing the firebase site and clearing an area large enough to accommodate CH and CH helicopters if the site is inaccessible by ground vehicle.

Where the tops of stake or holdfast is driveni the top of the picket. Therefore, priorities of construction are necessary.