Artritis infecciosa como única manifestación de la esporotricosis: serología de muestras de suero y líquido de la sinovia como recurso del diagnósticoInfectious . Relevancia del cuerpo asteroide esporotricósico en el diagnóstico rápido de la esporotricosisImportance of the asteroid body presence on the early diagnosis of . Esporotricosis linfangitica bilateral y simultanea. Rev. .. Relevancia del cuerpo asteroide esporotricosico en el diagnostico rapido de la esporotricosis. Rev.
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Sporotrichosis, which is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckiiis currently distributed throughout the world, especially in tropical and subtropical zones. Infection generally occurs by traumatic inoculation of soil, plants, and organic matter contaminated with the fungus. Certain leisure and occupational activities, such as floriculture, agriculture, mining, and wood exploitation, are traditionally associated with the mycosis.
Zoonotic transmission has been described in isolated cases or in small outbreaks. Since the end of the s there has been an epidemic of sporotrichosis associated with transmission by cats in Rio de Espororicosis, Brazil. More than 2, human cases and 3, animal cases have been reported.
In humans, the lesions are usually restricted to the skin, subcutaneous cellular tissue, and adjacent lymphatic vessels.
In cats, the disease can evolve with severe clinical manifestations and frequent systemic involvement. The gold standard for sporotrichosis diagnlstico is culture. However, serological, histopathological, and molecular approaches have been recently adopted as auxiliary tools for the diagnosis of this mycotic infection.
The first-choice treatment for both humans and cats is itraconazole. Sporotrichosis, caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckiiis currently distributed throughout the world, especially in tropical and subtropical zones.
At present, veterinarians, technicians, caretakers, and owners of cats with sporotrichosis are regarded as a new risk category for the acquisition of the disease. The lesions are usually restricted to the skin, subcutaneous cellular tissue, and adjacent lymphatic vessels. Eventually, this fungus can disseminate to other organs, and alternatively, on rare occasions, inhalation of conidia may lead to a systemic disease.
Several factors, such as inoculum load, immune status of the host, virulence of the inoculated strain, espoeotricosis depth of traumatic inoculation, influence the different clinical forms of sporotrichosis. The gold standard for sporotrichosis detection is culture; however, serological, histopathological, and molecular approaches have been recently adopted as auxiliary tools for the diagnosis of this mycotic infection.
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Sporothrix schenckii was isolated for the first time in by Benjamin Schenck, a medical student at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, MD, from a year-old male patient presenting lesions on the right hand and arm.
This isolate, from the patient abscess, was then studied by the mycologist Erwin Smith, who concluded that the fungus belonged to the genus Sporotrichum Previously, Linck in and Lutz diagnoshico referred to some possible sporotrichosis esporotdicosis, but the isolation of the fungus by these authors for case definitions was not possible This was the case of a boy who suffered an injury with a hammer hitting his finger, with the lesion presenting spontaneous regression.
These investigators gave the sporotrichosis agent its current denomination, Sporothrix schenckii Later, this fungus was dixgnostico included in the genus Sporotrichumwhich comprises basidiomycetous fungi espofotricosis are neither dimorphic nor pathogenic for humans or other animals This erroneous nomenclature remained untilwhen Carmichael recognized differences in the conidiations of members of the genus Sporotrichum and isolates from sporotrichosis cases InSabouraud suggested to Beurmann and Gougerot the use of potassium iodine for the treatment of sporotrichosis, which was a common disease in France during the beginning of the 20th century This has hitherto been a satisfactory therapy for sporotrichosis, although no randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have ever been conducted The first reported case of natural animal infection was described in by Lutz and Splendore in rats from Brazil The possibility of human infection by bites from these rats was considered Also in Brazil, inSplendore reported the detection of asteroid bodies around Sporothrix yeast cells, which offer a very useful tool for sporotrichosis diagnosis in histological examinations Sporothrix schenckii belongs to the kingdom Fungi and is a eukaryotic organism that is without mobility diagnostido heterotrophic and presents chitin on its cell wall.
For several years, this fungus was included in division Eumycotadiagnostici Deuteromycotinaclass Hyphomycetesorder Monilialesand family Moniliaceae After a substantial espprotricosis taxonomy revision by Guarro and coworkers, this fungus was characterized in division Ascomycotaclass Pyrenomycetesorder Ophiostomatalesand family Ophiostomataceae The sexual form of Espororicosis.
However, there is substantial molecular evidence that this fungus undergoes recombination in nature Nevertheless, some studies esporotriclsis that S. On the diiagnostico hand, morphological and physiological studies exhibit consistent differences between these two species. Differences are also apparent when these species are inoculated in mice.
These observations lead to the conclusion that the O. Meanwhile, other molecular studies 5697together with work by Berbee and Taylor 22reinforce that the S. Berbee and Taylor diagnostio that S. Recently, Marimon and coworkerson the basis of phenotypic and genotypic analyses, suggested that S. Figure 1 presents a key to differentiate species within the S. Identification key for Sporothrix species of clinical interest, based on morphological and phenotypic tests described by Marimon and collaborators Recently, de Meyer and collaborators 56 described three other environmental Sporothrix species, S.
The first two species differ from S. It is interesting to note that isolates classified as S. Sporothrix schenckii is a dimorphic fungus. These one-celled conidia are tear shaped to clavate 53 and do not yield chains Often, hyaline or brown thick-walled conidia arise beside the hyphae. The dark cell walls of the conidia distinguish S. Macroscopically, filamentous colonies in diagnostio such as malt extract agar or potato dextrose agar Fig.
Some strains, however, have the ability to form dark colonies from the beginning of growth 5. Cultures of pus from lesions of S. Most strains become visible after eeporotricosis days of growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar, presenting no visible dark djagnostico at this stage tube at leftwhereas others are melanized since the beginning of growth tube at center.
This fungus is evident in both human and animal tissues as budding yeasts. Yeastlike cells can be observed in various sizes and shapes. Macroscopically, yeast colonies Fig.
Some esporotriosis aspects implicated in proliferation and dlagnostico of this morphological form of S. Studies have proven that this pathway is necessary for the reentry of S. The transition from mold to yeast form in S. Some strains, especially those related to the S. Although rich media are required for the mycelium-to-yeast transition, S. This transition process also occurs after patients are infected with filamentous S.
Morphological transformation at the ultrastructural level occurs by direct formation of budlike structures at the tips and along the hyphae together with oidial cell formation after septation of the hyphae, without conspicuous alterations of the cytoplasmic content of parent mycelial cell. There is no direct budding of yeast from conidiospores The beginning of the yeast-to-mycelium transition in S.
A prerequisite for this transition process is a nuclear division; afterwards, a germ tube is originated from the parental yeast cell and a espodotricosis is formed at esporotricoosis cell-germ tube formation Like other fungi, S.
Esporotricosis granulomatosa: presentación de dos casos inusuales
There are characteristic differences in cell wall thickness between conidia, yeast forms, and filaments, as well variations in plasma membrane invaginations among these three morphological forms of the fungus.
It has been shown by freeze fracturing studies that in conidia invaginations are short and abundant and in yeast forms they are scarce and longer, while the plasma membrane of the S. The fungal cell wall is rigid as well as complex, and recently it has been shown that S. The chemical esporotricoxis of fungal cell wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins have been studied basically because of the knowledge of the antigenic structures of human pathogens A peptide-rhamnomannan was isolated from the yeast S.
Comparative studies of mycelial and yeast S. The cell wall composition of the mycelial phase included large amounts of lipids and protein and a lower concentration of mannose The cell wall composition in S. The yeast cell wall of S. Of particular interest is a glycoprotein of 70 kDa isolated from the cell wall of the S. The purified glycopeptide has a pI of 4. This glycoprotein has a uniform distribution on the esporotdicosis cell surface and participates in adhesion to the dermal extracellular matrix Little is known about the S.
Studies on the genomic DNA base composition rendered an average guanine and cytosine content of about More recently, Tateishi and coworkerskaryotyping eight strains isolated from esporotricozis in Japan, concluded that S.
Another study with strains from a esporotficosis geographical origin predicted a Mbp genome size for S. Perhaps these differences are related to either the different species recently described or to underestimations in the methods adopted for genome size determination.
Also, it has been reported that S. On the other hand, aneuploidy, a state in which most of the chromosomes are disomic, cannot be excluded It is interesting to note that diploidy is essential for thermal dimorphism in Cryptococcus neoformansand similarities in life cycle between this fungus and other dimorphic fungi, including S.
Initially, 24 mtDNA types were citedand more recently types 25 to 30 esporotrivosis 31 to 32 were introduced. These analyses have been adopted in several studies with S. Even though sporotrichosis is a disease distributed worldwide, there are only a few studies regarding the physiological characteristics of its agent.
In general, the optimal temperature for S. Moreover, this inhibition appears to be geographically related Several esporotricosos can be assimilated by S. However, there is some variability in assimilation of sucrose, arabinose, starch, raffinose, and ribitol 79 Starch assimilation is esporohricosis affected by fungal preservation under some storage methodologies, such as the Castellani method The carbohydrate concentration available during S.
This fungus is not able to ferment any carbohydrate Glucose concentration-dependent increase of melanin synthesis.