Kautilya, also known as Chanakya, was believed to be the chief minister in the He is considered the author of the Arthashastra, meaning a texts on wealth. अर्थशास्त्र, हिंदी, संस्कृत, नीति, ramavatar vidyabhashkar, chanakya, kautilya, chandragupta maurya, india, bharat, arth shastra, hindi, neeti, . Read Kautilya’s Arthashastra book reviews & author details and more at Amazon. in. The dissertation was written in Sanskrit by Chanakya, the teacher to the.
|Published (Last):||25 April 2007|
|PDF File Size:||17.66 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||20.70 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Kautilya, also known as Chanakya, was believed to be the chief minister in the court of Chandragupta Maurya, a contemporary of Alexander and the first great emperor of India who ruled the subcontinent in the 4th Century BC.
He is considered the author of the Arthashastra, meaning a texts on wealth. Historically, the Kautilya’s work carries a great significance because it is an important source for the history of Mauryas. The book was discovered by Shamasastri in who also translated and introduced it to the public. There is a controversy regarding the date of Arthashastra.
Smith and others believed that it was written by Chanakya, the Prime Minister of Chandragupta Maurya. Others such as Dr. Bhandarkar believed that it was written much later during the early Christian era.
Jolly believed that the work was originally based on Yajnavalkya Sutras which was composed during the third century A. However many Indian scholars hold that the work belongs to fourth century B.
Arthashastra – Wikipedia
The book containing about hymns is a comprehensive manual on how a state ought to be ruled and administrated by a king and his administration. It is very detailed and systematic in prescribing solutions to the various problems associated with monarchial form of governance. Several of the administrative suggestions prescribed by the author are still relevant and practicable in the modern administrative world.
There has been a great deal of controversy as to the original author shastrs this work, as some believe it to be the work of one individual by the name Chanakya or Kautilya or some one with the name, while some believe it be the work of several generations of writers belonging to a particular school of political thought.
It is also not certain whether Chankya was truly a minister in the court of Chandragupta Maurya, though legend attributes the success of Chandragupta in ascending the throne to the acumen and clever planning of Chanakya. Interestingly the Arthashastra makes no mention of either Chandragupta Maurya, or his empire or capital, thus lending credence to the theory that its author was different.
Hence by overthrowing the aggregate of the six enemies [lust, anger, greed, vanity, haughtiness, and shastrq, he shall restrain the organs of sense; acquire wisdom by keeping company with the aged; see through his spies; establish safety and security by being ever active; maintain his subjects in the observance of their respective duties by exercising authority; keep up his personal discipline by receiving lessons in the sciences; and endear himself to the people by bringing them in contact with wealth and doing good to them.
Thus, with his organs of sense under control, he shall keep away from hurting the women and property of others; avoid not only lustfulness, even in dream, but also falsehood, haughtiness, and evil proclivities; and keep away from unrighteous and uneconomical transactions.
Not violating righteousness and economy, he shall enjoy his desires. He shall never be devoid of happiness. He may enjoy in an equal degree the three pursuits of life: Any one of these chanakua, when chanakha to an excess, hurts not only the other two, but also itself.
Kautilya holds that wealth, and wealth alone, is important, inasmuch as charity and desire depend upon wealth for their realization. Those teachers and ministers who keep him from falling a prey to dangers, and who, by striking the hours of the day as determined by measuring shadows, warn him of his careless proceedings even in secret, shall invariably be respected.
Sovereignty is possible only with assistance. A single wheel can never move. Hence he shall employ ministers and hear their opinion. If a king is energetic, his subjects will be equally energetic.
If he is kautliya, they will not only be reckless likewise, but also shastrra into his works. Besides, a reckless king will easily fall into the hands sastra his enemies. Chahakya the king shall ever katuilya wakeful. He shall divide both the day and the night into eight nalikas [1. Of these divisions, during the first one-eighth part of the day, he shall post watchmen and attend to the accounts of receipts and expenditure; during the second part, he shall look to the affairs of both citizens and country people; during the third, he shall not only receive revenue in gold, but also attend to the appointments of superintendents; chanaya the fifth, he shall correspond in writs with the assembly of his ministers, hsastra receive the secret information gathered by his spied; during the sixth, he may engage himself in his favorite amusements or in self-deliberation; during the seventh, he shall superintend elephants, horses, chariots and infantry; and during the eighth part, he shall consider various plans of military operations with his commander-in-chief.
At the close of the day he shall observe the evening prayer. During the first one-eighth part of the night, he shall receive secret emissaries; during the second, he shall attend to bathing and supper and study; during the third, he shall enter the bed chamber amid the sound of trumpets and enjoy sleep during the fourth and fifth parts; having been awakened by the sound of trumpets during the sixth part, he shall recall to his mind the injunctions of sciences as well as the day’s duties; during the seventh, he shall sit considering administrative measures and send out spies; and during the eighth division of the night he shall receive benedictions from sacrificial priests, kautklya and the high priest, and having seen his physician, chief cook and astrologer, and having saluted both a cow with its calf and a bull by circumambulating around them, he shall get into his court.
Or in conformity to his capacity, he chanaoya alter the time-table and attend to his duties. When in his court he shall never cause his petitioners to wait at the door, for when sjastra king makes himself inaccessible to his people and entrusts his work to his immediate officers, he may be sure to engender confusion in business, and to cause thereby public disaffection, and himself a prey to his enemies.
He shall, therefore, personally attend to the business of gods, of heretics, of Shawtra learned in the Vedas, of cattle, of sacred places, of minors, the mautilya, the afflicted, and the helpless, and of women; all this in order of enumeration or according to the urgency or pressure of those works.
All urgent calls he shall hear at once, but never put off, for when postponed, they will prove too hard or impossible to accomplish. Having seated himself in the room where the sacred fire has been kept, he shall attend to the business of physicians and ascetics practicing austerities; and that in company chana,ya his high priest and teacher and after preliminary salutation to the petitioners.
Accompanied by persons proficient in the three sciences but not alone lest the petitioners be offended, he shall look to the business of those who are practicing austerities, as well as of those who are chanakga in vhanakya and Yoga.
Of a king, the religious vow is his readiness to action; satisfactory discharge of duties is his performance of sacrifice; equal attention to all is the offer of fees and ablution shxstra consecration. In the happiness of his subjects lies his happiness; in their welfare his welfare; whatever pleases himself he shall not consider as good, shstra whatever pleases his subjects he shall consider as good.
Hence the king shall ever be active and discharge his duties; the root of wealth is activity, and of evil its reverse. In the absence of activity acquisitions present and to come will perish; by activity he can achieve both his desired ends and abundance of wealth. Teachers say that the word sasana “command” syastra, is applicable only to royal writs. Writs are of great importance to kings, inasmuch as treaties and ultimata leading xhanakya war depend upon writs. Hence one who is possessed of ministerial qualifications, acquainted with all kinds of customs, smart in composition, good in legible writing, and sharp in reading chanaiya be appointed as a writer.
Such a writer, having listened attentively to the king’s order and having well-thought out the matter under consideration, shall reduce the order to writing. In the cities of sangrahana, dronamukhaand sthaniyaand at places where districts meet, three members acquainted with Sacred Law and three ministers of the king shall carry on the administration of justice. They shall hold as void agreements shasta into in seclusion, inside the houses, in the dead of night, in forests, in secret, or kautilta fraud.
The proposer and the accessory shall be punished with the first amercement; the witnesses shall each be punished with half of the above fine; and acceptors shall suffer the loss they may have sustained. But agreements entered into within the hearing of others, as well as those not otherwise condemnable shall be valid.
The year, the season, the month, the fortnight, the date, the nature and place of the deed, the amount of the debt as well as the country, the residence, the caste, the gotrathe name and occupation of both the plaintiff and the defendant kaurilya of whom must be fit to sue and chanakys, having been registered first, the statements of the parties shall be taken down in such order as is required by the case.
The Arthashastra – Kautilya
These statements shall then be thoroughly scrutinized. Leaving out the question at issue, either of the parties takes resort to another; his previous statement is not consistent with his subsequent one; he insists on the necessity of considering the opinion of a third person, though it is not worthy of any such consideration; having commenced to answer the question at issue, he breaks off at once, even though he is ordered to continue; he introduces questions other than those specified by himself; he withdraws his own statement; he does not accept what his own witnesses have deposed to; and he holds secret conversations with his witnesses where he ought not to do sothese constitute the offence of parokta.
Fine for parokta is five times the amount of the suit. Fine for self-assertion without evidence is ten times the amount. Fees for witnesses shall cover one-eighth of a pana. Provision proportional to the amount sued for may also be made for the expenses incurred by witnesses in their journey. The defeated party shall pay these two kinds of costs. In cases other than duel, robbery, as well as disputes among merchants or trade-guilds, the defendant shall file no counter-case against the plaintiff.
Nor can there be a counter-case for the defendant. The plaintiff shall reply soon after the defendant has answered the questions at issue. Else he shall be guilty of parokta, for the plaintiff knows the determining factors of the case. But the defendant does not do so. The defendant may be allowed three or seven nights to prepare his defense.
If he is not ready with his defense within that time, he shall be punished with a fine ranging from three to twelve panas.
If the plaintiff runs away, he shall be guilty of parokta. Sacred Law, evidence, history, and edicts of kings chqnakya the four cbanakya of Law.
Of these four in order, the later is superior to the one previously named. Sacred Law [Dharma] is eternal truth holding its sway over the world; evidence is in witnesses; history is to be found in the tradition of the people; and the order of kings is kautulya is called sasana.
The Arthashastra of Kautilya or Chanakya
As the duty of a king consists in protecting his subjects with justice, its observance leads him to heaven. He who does not protect his people or upsets the social order wields his royal scepter in vain. It is power and power alone which, only when exercised by the king with impartiality and in proportion to guilt, either over his son or his enemy, maintains both this world and the next.
Marriage is the basis of all disputes.
The giving in marriage of a virgin well-adorned is called ” Brahma -marriage. The rest are to be sanctioned by both the father and the mother; for it is they that receive the money paid by the bridegroom for their daughter.
In case of the absence by death of either the father or the mother, the survivor will receive the money-payment. If both of them are dead, the virgin herself shall receive it. Any kind of marriage is approvable, provided it pleases all those that are concerned in it. Means of subsistence or jewelry constitutes what is called the property of a woman.
Means of subsistence above two thousand shall be endowed in her name. There is no limit kautilyya jewelry.
It chana,ya no guilt for the wife to make use of this property in maintaining her son, her daughter-in-law, or herself, whenever her absent husband has made no chanxkya for her maintenance.
In calamities, disease and famine, in warding off dangers and in charitable acts, the husband, too, shasra make use of this property.
On the death of her husband a woman, desirous to lead a pious life, shall at once receive not only her endowment and jewelry, but also the balance of the marriage-price due her. If after obtaining these two things she remarries another, she shall be caused to pay them back together with interest on their value. If a widow marries any man other than of her father-in-law’s selection, she shall forfeit whatever had been given to her by her father-in-law and her deceased husband.
No woman shall succeed in her attempt to establish her title to the property of her deceased husband, after she remarries. If she lives a pious life, she may enjoy it. No woman with a son or sons shall after remarriage be at liberty to make free use of her property; for that property of hers, her sons shall receive.
If a woman either brings forth no live children, or has no male issue, or is barren, her husband shall wait for eight years before marrying another. If she bears only a dead child, he has to wait for ten years. If she brings forth only females, he has to wait for twelve years. Then, if he is desirous to have sons, he may marry another. If a husband either is of bad character, or is long gone abroad, or has become a traitor to his king, or is likely to endanger the life of his wife, or has fallen from his caste, or has lost virility, he may be abandoned by his wife.
Women, when twelve years old, attain their majority, and men when sixteen years old. If, after attaining their majority, they prove disobedient to lawful authority, women shall be fined fifteen panas, and men twice the amount.