Eur J Paediatr Neurol. Sep;16(5) doi: / Epub Jan Beyond the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale. Burke RE, Fahn S, Marsden CD, Bressman SB, Moskowitz C, Friedman J. Validity and reliability of a rating scale for the primary torsion dystonias. Download Table | Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale from publication: Early Globus Pallidus Internus Stimulation in Pediatric Patients With.

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Botulinum toxin type B vs. This scale is available only in English.

Initial discussions among these task force members were on the construct to be reviewed, in the case its concept was not universally accepted. Validity and reliability of a rating scale for the primary torsion dystonias.

For separate items, inter-rater agreement was fair to good being lowest for eyes, jaw, face, and larynx Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol Bord ; Bart Post Research project conception and execution, organization, manuscript review. Rationale and design of a prospective study: Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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It is composed of fifty-eight 5-point items grouped into eight subscales that measure symptoms head and burkr movements, pain and discomfort in neck and shoulders, sleep disturbance as a result of torticollisactivity limitations in upper limb activities and walking, and psychosocial features annoyance, mood, psychosocial functioning.

A study of the effectiveness of voice therapy in the treatment of 45 patients with nonorganic dysphonia.

A systematic literature review was conducted to identify rating scales that have either been validated or used in dystonia. Double-blind, randomised, parallel group pilot study comparing two botulinum toxin type A products for the treatment of blepharospasm. The quality and accuracy of the pre-treatment assessment and the choice of assessment tools are crucial as they will affect all subsequent post-treatment comparisons.


The BSDI has been specifically designed to measure disability in blepharospasm due to dystonic movements that affect vision. The complete VHI has 30 items organized in 3 domains: Pablo Martinez-Martin Research project conception and execution, organization, manuscript review.

Scales should be developed for body regions where no scales are available, such as lower limbs and trunk. Difficulties with differentiating botulinum toxin treatment effects in essential blepharospasm. In addition, published articles known to the Task Force members were included in this review.

Long-term follow-up results of selective laryngeal adductor denervation-reinnervation surgery for adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Eight were excluded because they did not meet review criteria, leaving twenty-eight scales that were critiqued and rated by the task force. Voice change following thyroid and parathyroid surgery. The Canadian multicentre study of deep brain stimulation for cervical dystonia.

The range of scores is zero to 24, with higher scores indicating a greater disability. A pilot study of botulinum toxin A for headache in cervical dystonia.

Construct validity was not fully evaluated. Bilateral pallidal stimulation in children and adolescents with primary generalized dystonia–report of six patients dystoina literature-based analysis of predictive outcomes variables. Respective potencies of Botox and Dysport: Efficacy and safety of botulinum type A toxin Dysport in cervical dystonia: Tom Warner Research project conception and execution, organization, manuscript review.

Evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of voice therapy using transnasal flexible burie Data from two large randomized trials designed to evaluate the effects of BoNT type A products for blepharospasm showed that the BSDI was sensitive to change but did not detect differences between two BoNT products 10 It was developed to determine the level of disability experienced by patients with different voice disorders Warner9 Albert F. Please review our privacy policy. Dystohia is more sensitive karsden detecting statistical and clinical changes than other subscales, although it has not been widely used as an outcome measure.


Efficacy and safety of repeated doses of botulinum toxin type B in type A resistant and responsive cervical dystonia. Evaluating children with dystonia is difficult, because a wider spectrum of abnormalities may be commonly associated with dystonia. The CDQ evaluates also pain, sleep and depression due to dystonia.

FMDRS – Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale

Comparison of botulinum toxin serotypes A and B for the treatment of cervical dystonia. Table 1 Classification of the rating measures applied in studies of dystonia.

Use by multiple groups outside the original developers The VPQ has been used to measure outcomes in interventions in several trials none of which were performed on patients with dystonia 78 — The disability scale, patient-rated, comprises 6 items, including daily activities, work, reading, and driving; the maximal score is Fahm adults, children frequently have secondary forms that can be confounded with other motor abnormalities, including weakness, spasticity, impaired selective motor control, bradykinesia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, and sensory impairments.

The scale has been applied to dystonia patients; criterion 2: All scales are listed in the online supporting material.