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Learn how to extend battery life by moderating ambient temperatures. Batteries operate over a wide temperature range, but this does not give permission to also charge them at these conditions.

The charging process is more delicate than discharging and special care must be taken. Extreme cold and high heat reduce charge acceptance, so the battery must be brought to a moderate temperature before charging. Older battery technologies, such as lead acid and NiCd, have higher charging tolerances than newer systems. This allows them to charge below freezing but at a reduced charge C-rate. Table 1 summarizes the permissible charge and discharge temperatures of common rechargeable batteries.

The table excludes specialty batteries that are designed to charge outside these parameters. Permissible temperature limits for various batteries.

Batteries can be discharged over a large temperature range, but the charge temperature is limited. Lower the charge current when cold. If charged too quickly, pressure builds up in the cell that can lead to venting.

Reduce the charge current of all nickel-based batteries to 0. Nickel-based chargers with NDV full-charge detection offer some protection when fast charging at low temperatures; the poor charge acceptance when cold mimics a fully charged battery. This is in part caused by a high pressure buildup due to the reduced ability to recombine gases at low temperature. Pressure rise and a voltage drop at full charge appear synonymous.

BUDFI – ST – Transistors (BJT) – Single – Kynix Semiconductor

To enable fast charging at all temperatures, some industrial batteries add a thermal blanket that heats the battery to an acceptable temperature; other chargers adjust the charge rate to prevailing temperatures. Consumer chargers do not have these provisions and the end user is advised to only charge at room temperature. Lead acid is reasonably forgiving when it comes to temperature extremes, as the starter batteries in our cars reveal.

Part of this tolerance is credited to their sluggish behavior. The recommended charge rate at low temperature is 0. A lead acid battery charges at a constant current to a set voltage that is typically 2. This voltage is governed by temperature and is set higher when cold and lower when warm. Figure 2 illustrates the recommended settings for most lead acid batteries. In parallel, the figure also shows the recommended float charge voltage to which the charger reverts when the battery is fully charged.


When charging lead acid at fluctuating temperatures, the charger should feature voltage adjustment to minimize stress on the battery. Cell voltages on charge and float at various temperatures. Charging at cold and hot temperatures requires adjustment of voltage limit. Betta Batteries Freezing a lead acid battery leads to permanent damage. Always keep the batteries fully charged because in the discharged state the electrolyte becomes more water-like and freezes earlier than when fully charged.

According to BCI, a specific gravity of 1. Flooded lead acid batteries tend to crack the case and cause leakage if frozen; sealed lead acid packs lose potency and only deliver a few cycles before they fade and need replacement. During charge, the internal cell resistance causes a slight temperature rise that compensates for some of the cold. The internal resistance of all batteries rises when cold, prolonging charge times noticeably.

Although the pack appears to be charging normally, plating of metallic lithium can occur on the anode during a sub-freezing charge. This is permanent and cannot be removed with cycling.

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Batteries with lithium plating are more vulnerable to failure if exposed to vibration or other stressful conditions. Advanced chargers Cadex prevent charging Li-ion below freezing. Advancements are being made to charge Li-ion below freezing temperatures.

Charging is indeed possible with most lithium-ion cells but only at very low currents.

At this low current, the charge time would stretch to over 50 hours, a time that is deemed impractical. High-temperature Charge Heat is the worst enemy of batteries, including lead acid.

Adding temperature compensation on a lead acid charger to adjust for temperature variations is said to prolong dwtasheet life by up to 15 percent. The recommended datahseet is a 3mV drop per cell for every degree Celsius rise in temperature. If the float voltage is set to 2.

Going colder, the voltage should be 2. Table 3 indicates the optimal peak voltage at various temperatures when charging lead acid batteries. The table also includes the recommended float voltage while in standby mode. Voltage compensation prolongs battery life when operating at temperature extremes. Charging nickel-based batteries at high temperatures lowers oxygen generation, which reduces charge acceptance. Charging nickel-based batteries when warm lowers oxygen generation that reduces charge acceptance.

NDV for full-charge detection becomes unreliable at higher temperatures, and temperature sensing is essential for backup. NiCd charge acceptance as a function of temperature. Courtesy of Cadex Lithium-ion performs well at elevated temperatures but prolonged exposure to heat reduces longevity.


Charging and discharging at elevated temperatures is subject to gas generation that might cause a cylindrical cell to vent and a pouch cell to swell. Some lithium-based packs are momentarily heated to high temperatures.

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Oil and gas drilling as part of fracking also exposes the battery dataasheet high temperatures. Capacity loss at elevated temperature is in direct relationship with state-of-charge SoC.

There is no noticeable capacity loss at room temperature. This loss is higher with a 50 percent SoC and shows a devastating effect when cycled at full charge.

In case of datasheft, leaking electrolyte or any other cause of exposure to the electrolyte, flush with water immediately.

If eye exposure occurs, flush with water for 15 minutes and consult a physician immediately. Battery University monitors the comments and understands the importance of expressing perspectives and opinions in a shared forum. However, all communication must be done with the use of appropriate language and the avoidance of spam and discrimination. If you have a datahseet or would like to report an error, please use the ‘contact us’ form or email us at: We like to hear from you but we cannot answer all inquiries.

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