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Tebrx the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Full text of ” A Biological Reconnaissance of the Base of the Alaska Peninsula ” See other formats Google This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world’s books discoverable online.
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About Google Book Search Google’s mission is to organize the world’s information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers brownsvilpe the world’s yebra while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web at http: I have the honor to transmit herewith for publication, as Tevra American Fauna No.
It comprifies observations made in the field and subsequent systematic studies, and is entirely the work of Mr. The illustrations, consisting of two maps and five half-tone plates, are necessary to a clear understanding of the text.
Hart Merriam, Chief Biological Survey. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture. Map showing the life zones of the region 24 So. Work was done on both coasts and in part of the interior.
Throughout the trip Alfred G. Maddren acted as my assistant and Walter Fleming was employed as camp hand.
Although for the most part occupied other- wise, he secured a considerable number of specimens, as well as. Natives were employed from time to time as carriers and guides, and as a rule proved faithful and efficient.
Much of the region has. Ijjinding at Iliamna Bay PI.
Some short dcAays w? Crossing from there to Swan Lake and start- ing down stream August ‘ The coast of Iliamna Bav, like nearlv all the southeast side of the Alaska Peninsula, is extremely mountainous. Our tirst view of Lake Clark from the low ground nciir the head terba the Xogheling River was not an impressive one.
The mountains, which are from 5 H to 1, feet in height at the lower mkI, ext Mul along each side of the tebta stretch of water, and gradually become higher and higher browsnville more and more rugged PI. The higher peaks innnediately surrounding the head of the lake are possibly of an altitude of 5.
On the south side near the upper end. A beautiful open forest of birch and spnice i. Willows and aklers abound in their respective relative positions, while smaller shrubs and boreal plants are in characteristic profusion. Our route, which is more jmicticable for summer travel, was by the Chulitna River, across to the Nushagak drainage, and on down to the coast. This route was formerly used to a considemble extent when the region was inhabited by many more natives than at present. Now it ttebra well known to the older natives only, and signs of travel along it are few and obscured by time.
The Brownsvillle is the largest stream emptying into Hebra Clark. Its waters are of the dark amber color, characteristic of north- ern streams which drain tundra and stMuitundra areas; and its mouth, where the current is scarcely evident, n ight be mistaken for an arm of the lake, but for the sudden change in the color of the water. Looking upstream from the mouth of the river, the country appears comparatively yebra, as far as can be seen.
For several miles above the mouth of the river the country is low and swampy. Several days were spent here, while a fresh supply of provisions was liroughtup from a aiche made on the Nogheiing River.
On August 10 we were ready to start up the Chulitna. Up to this time the weather had been comparatively mild and bright, with only an occasional squall. It is of nearly uniform depth, however, without shallow bars— a typical tundra stixiam. From the summit one views to the eastward the broad, comparatively level region drained by the Chu- litna.
From this elevated view- grownsville one fully api reciates how closely the heavier growth of conifer- ous trees is confined to the banks of the streams. The Swan is less easily followed on account of the small lakes which comprise most of tebrw upper course. The lK ttom is diatomaceous ooze. The brownsvills ten lours of travel were disagreeable, as the shallow and tortuous streams aade it necessary to wade and drag the heavily loaded canoe over a ling scries of gravel bars.
Below the lakes the water of the Swan nH-irtiies dee]K? Near the mouth of the Kakhtul. From the tops of the low hills on the right ide of the river the view extends across to the vallev of the Malchatna.
This is the so-called Tikchik Mountain, a well- nown landmark for the natives and other travelers in the region. Below the Tikchik the volume of brownsvllle is much increased.
Although there are many islands and long sand bars, brownsbille water seems to be of brownsviille depth suflScient for a small, light-draft steamboat, if carefully piloted, to navigate the stream. Although the country is for the most part low, the banks of the river, particularly on the northwest side, are frequently from 50 to feet high.
They were in a very destitute condition, and many were much enfeebled or dis- eased. Ikwok, a small collection of igloos and caches a few miles above Kakwok, was found deserted, but with evidences of recent occupation, probably only temi orary, by Kakwok natives.
Along the banks considerable spruce timber is found all the way to Nushagak, though for the last 20 miles it is rather small and scattered.
Within 30 miles of Nushagak, how- ever, there arc many good-sized clumps of white spruce, the trees averaging about 10 inches in diameter. Similar timber is said to be found along Wood River somewhat nearer to Nushagak. The estuary of the Nushagak River is a wide bay traversed by swift tidal currents. At low water broad mud flats and long bars are exposed, particularly on the east side.
Although good-sized vessels are able to enter the bay, navigation is difticult. Behind this bluff is a rolling country of the same general level, largely tundra, ] ut with here and there dumps of small spruces. On the opposite shore of the hsiy consider- able timl er is seen scattered over low benches and irregular hills. It WHS fonuerly one of tlie best fur-trading stations in Alaska, and, indeed, still is, as the l asiness can haixlly be said to have decreased there more than elsewhere.
When Nushagak was reached, Septenilier 12, all the larger fishing boats were found beached and housed in for the winter. No suitable MaiUK ats were to be had for tdbra trip across Bristol Bay, and we finally decided upon the hazardous undertaking of coasting around to Koggiung in our own canoe. By great good fortune, however, a small schooner, which had been reported lost, suddenly ai peared, and passage wjis engaged to Igagik.
Start was made on September 26, and the next evening Igagik was reached. Here a salmon cannery is situated just inside the mouth of IJgaguk River and surrounded by a half tebrw rude dwelling houses for the watchmen and a small collection of igloos or native huts.
The region is low and treeless. The Ugaguk River offered no great difficulties, as it is only a little more than 40 miles in length, and all but the upt brownsivlle. The lower partof the Ugaguk at flotxl tide has the appearance of any ordinary- tidal slew. The river U wide and contains many shallow stretches, where long sand- liars are doubtless exposed at ebb tide.
Often the banks are mere swamfw only 6 inches or a foot above high-water mark. The stream cuts through a ledge of gninite just as it issues from Becharof ludake. The country around the lower end of the lake is very desolate.
Farther Imck plant growth is more continuous, but verj’ depauperate. The chief woody plants are Fsinptlruin and sevend small species of tialix.
The lake is liordered bv an almost eon- tinuous gravel beach. Imck of which are blutT-like hills clothed with tundm vegetation. The course up Itecharof Lake wad along the south shore, and at no time was it more than a half mile from the beach.
A small collection of native igloos or barabanis is located near the mouth of the stream. Thev arc from 2, to: Two davs of hard work in stormy weather sulliced to transi ort impedimenta to Kanatak. A scanty growth of alder and willow is found along s4 me of the streams, which are short, swift, and shallow. Thi’ hillside blanket of tundra vegetation is very thin, and the gravel or shingle iN’neath shows through in many places.
Practically all the region under considenition in the present paper lies along the Iwrder of the Iludsonian and Arctic zones.