ASTM E165-02 PDF

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Some of the most popular NDE methods include: Non-destructive examination basics Patrick J.

Then the surface must be allowed to dry. The liquid penetrant examination just makes the discontinuities easier to see. Penetrating oils typically contain a red dye and are sprayed or brushed onto the area of the material being tested.

ASTM E(02) – [PDF Document]

The developer brings the penetrating oil out of the discontinuities by a blotting action. It is a common misconception to label a discontinuity as a crack. It should be pointed out, however, that after indications have been produced, they must be interpreted or classified and then evaluated.

This technique can be used on a variety of ferrous and non-ferrous materials, including steel, stainless steel, aluminum, bronze, tungsten carbide, ceramics and plastics. Pre-clean the surfaces to be inspected. This might involve sandblasting, wire brushing, etc. They are nondestructive testing methods for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and are applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination.

Agreement by the user and the supplier regarding specific techniques is strongly recommended. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Some equipment manufacturers allow some surface indications, depending on their size and location on a particular part. Care must be zstm not to overly clean and remove the penetrant from the discontinuities.


These inspections can increase the reliability of the part by providing early detection of flaws that could lead to a failure. The surface then needs to be solvent cleaned to remove any greases or oils. A common recommendation is to use solvent and not potable water when cleaning stainless steel parts, such as turbine rotors, that will be highly stressed when in service.

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A suitable waiting time allows the penetrant to enter the surface discontinuities, and then excess penetrant can be removed. Box Dubuque, IA Phone: The visible dye penetrant technique involves the following steps:. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. The penetrant that is trapped in any discontinuities will glow when viewed under a black light.

Work Item s – proposed revisions of this standard. The correct term for a discontinuity is an indication, which is not necessarily a crack or a flaw.

ASTM E165-02.pdf

One of the most critical aspects of liquid penetrant testing is interpreting and evaluating the discontinuities. With this technique, liquid penetrant is applied to the surface of a material and is drawn into surface discontinuities such as cracks, pits and seams by capillary action. For this purpose there must be a separate code or specification or a specific agreement to define the type, size, location, and direction of indications considered acceptable, and those considered unacceptable.

The part then needs to be cleaned to remove the penetrant and the developer. They can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics, certain nonporous plastics, and glass.

This is typically done with a special cleaning solvent.

As soon as the material is dry, the developer is applied. An example of a gear tooth crack that was made more visible using a dye penetrant examination is shown in Figure 1. After application of the developer, the visual inspection is done with a black light. This method substitutes fluorescent penetrating oil for the visible dye penetrant. In most cases, the discontinuities are visible to the naked eye without liquid penetrant testing.


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To avoid this, any indications should be investigated by polishing and re-evaluating the indication. Cracks typically show up as red lines and pits usually look like red dots.

Also, there are no universal acceptance criteria on the maximum allowable size of an indication. Non-destructive examination NDE is used ast, detect cracks and other flaws in a part without rendering the part unusable by performing destructive testing.

SI units are provided for information only.

The reason is that some potable water sources contain chlorine, which can leave a residue on the surface and can lead to cracking in some stainless steels. Liquid penetrant testing Liquid penetrant inspection is the most popular method to check for surface cracks because it is simple and no special equipment is required. Advertisement 4 Go to Page 1 2 3 4 Edit Story.

Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. The purpose of this article is to describe these basic NDE techniques and discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods.

The visible dye penetrant technique involves the following steps: This can take minutes after the developer is applied. Active view current version of standard. Another technique involves the use of an ultraviolet light to view the surface discontinuities. A scratch or a pore can easily be misinterpreted as a crack or flaw, and this can lead to unnecessary and costly repairs.