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ASTM D1331-11 Standard Test Methods for Surface and Interfacial Tension
Published on Apr View Download D 11Standard Test Methods r1331 and Interfacial Tension of Solutions of SurfaceActive Agents1This standard is issued under the xed asgm D; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, aetm the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Two methods are covered as follows: More than one solute component may be present, including solute components that are not in themselves surface-active.
It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Material Safety Data Sheets are available for reagents and materials. Review them for hazards prior to usage. The tensiometer shall be placed on a sturdy support that is free from vibrations and other distur1 These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D01 on Paint and Related Coatings, Materials, and Applications and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D Current edition approved June 1, Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as D – 89 which was withdrawn January and reinstated in June The wire of the ring shall be in one plane, free of bends or irregularities, and circular.
When set in the instrument, the plane of the ring shall be horizontal, that is, parallel to the surface plane of the liquid being tested. Asgm of Apparatus 4. The use of fresh chromic-sulfuric acid cleaning mixture, followed by a thorough rinsing in distilled water, is recommended.
Allow the ring to dry, and then heat to white heat in the oxidizing portion of a gas ame. Calibration of Apparatus 5. Torsion may be applied to the wire by means of either the dial-adjusting screw which controls the dial reading or a rear adjusting screw. Calibration consists essentially in adjusting the length of the torsion arm so that the dial scale will read directly in dynes per centimetre. The precision tensiometer shall be calibrated in accordance with the following: A liquid level of the type employed on analytical balances may be used.
Place the level on the table that holds the sample for testing, and adjust the leg screws of the tensiometer until the table is horizontal. Pull the torsion wire taut by means of the tension screw, and adjust the dial reading and the vernier to zero.
Insert the platinum ring in the holder, and place a small piece of paper across the ring. This will serve as a platform to hold the calibrating weight.
No further d133 authorized. D 11automatically compensates for the weight of the paper platform. Next, place an accurately standardized weight of between and c1331 on the paper platform and turn the dial-adjusting screw until the index level of the arm is opposite the reference line of the mirror.
Record the dial reading to 0. NOTE 4Extreme care must be taken to have the sample vessel and platinum ring clean. Contamination of the liquid surface by dust or other atmospheric impurities during asttm should be avoided. Raise the sample platform by means of its adjusting screw until the ring is just submerged.
NOTE 5Since the surface tension of a solution is a function of the concentration, care must be taken that the concentration is adjusted and recorded within known limits.
The presence of solutes other than the surface-active agent should be ascertained and reported qualitatively and quantitatively, insofar as possible. This includes hardness components in the water. Care should be taken that astmm solution is physically homogeneous. Measurements made near or above the cloud point or other critical solubility points can be in serious error. This is particularly true when the solute is a surface-active material. If the recorded dial reading gamma-c is greater than the calculated value, the torsion arm should be shortened.
If gamma-c is less than the calculated value, the torsion arm should be lengthened. Repeat the calibration procedure, readjusting the zero position after each change in the length of the torsion arm, until the dial reading agrees with the calculated value. Note that a conversion factor, F see 5. These simultaneous adjustments must be carefully asgm so that the ring system remains constantly in its zero position.
As the breaking point is approached, the adjustments must be made more carefully and more slowly. Record the dial reading when the ring detaches from the surface. Additional measurements shall be made if indicated by the over-all variation obtained, the total number of readings to be determined by the magnitude awtm that variation. Since the submerging of the ring 6. The accuracy of this time observation may be indicated in the usual manner.
In most wstm an accuracy of 65 s is reasonable, and sufficient for this test method.
Calculation and Report 7. This value, called the uncorrected surface tension, must be multiplied by a correcting factor, F, to wstm the corrected surface tension. F is a function of the contours of the liquid surface in the neighborhood of the ring at the instant of breakaway. It can be numerically specied in terms of R, the mean radius, in centimetres, of the ring; r, the radius, in centimetres, of the wire from which the ring is made; and V, the maximum volume of liquid elevated above the free surface of the liquid.
For liquids of low surface tension, such as surfaceactive agents, F is, in general, appreciably less than unity. It must, therefore, be ascertained and applied. Values of F in5. This is done simply by dividing the scale reading into the weight used for calibration Note 3. This value is used in the calculation of the conversion factor, F, mentioned in 5. This instrument has, however, in addition to the torsion arm, a torsion-arm counterbalance.
asmt Adjust the length of this counterbalance to coincide with that of the torsion arm itself, in order that the vertical members of the assembly may remain in line. Check the plane of the ring, and set the dial and vernier at zero. Values for R and r are furnished by the manufacturer with each ring. The value of V is calculated from the following equation: To calculate M, multiply the tensiometer dial reading by the factor which converts this reading into grams pull on the ring, as calculated in 5.
The factor D can be measured by the usual procedures, and the value d can be obtained from published data. The corrected surface tension in dynes per centimetre is obtained by multiplying the uncorrected surface tension value by F.
Report also the temperature at which the measurement was made. If it is desired to report the surface tension value of an aqueous solution at some c1331 temperature, for example, 25C, and the measurement was actually made at a temperature within about 3C of this value that is, 22 to 28Ca correction factor of 0.
Subtract this correction factor from the surface tension when the temperature of the r1331 is lower than the reported temperature, and add it asm the surface tension when the temperature of the test is higher than the reported temperature. This value for the correction factor is not valid for nonaqueous liquids, and should be used only where the solvent is preponderantly water. With liquids lighter than water, it is accordingly possible to use the precision3 Harkins, W.
ASTM D Standard Test Methods for Surface and Interfacial Tension
With liquids heavier than water, where the ring must be pushed downward, the interfacial tensiometer should be used.
Make the measurement by turning the torsion wire counter-clockwise and simultaneously keeping the ring system in the zero position, as in the measurement of surface tension, until the ring breaks through the interface.
Carefully pour the oil on top of the aqueous solution to form the two-layer system.
Contact between the oil and the asrm should be avoided during this operation. After allowing sufficient time for the interfacial tension to come to its equilibrium value Note 6make the measurement in the same manner as that used for measuring surface tension.
NOTE 6Since the interfacial energy of a newly formed liquid-liquid interface generally requires some time to reach its equilibrium value, it is advisable to wait at least 5 min after the interface is formed before taking a measurement. D1331 and Report 9. Values for F have been published by Zuidema and Waters.
Report and adequately specify astn nature of the nonaqueous liquid oil used in the determination. Also report the temperature at which the determination was made. In contrast to surface tension values, interfacial tension values cannot adequately be corrected for small temperature deviations by means of a simple formula. D 11ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard.
Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every ve years and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn.
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Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the ASTM 1d331 www. ASTM D standard test method for interfacial tension of Fiberon Decking – Progressive Engineering Inc? Surface and interfacial tension Technology. Fire Test Methods – irp-cdn.