Esterification of free fatty acids using water-tolerable Amberlyst as a of heterogeneous acid catalysts, Amberlyst 15 and Amberlyst BD The grant supports Rohm and Haas’s development of a newly commercial polymeric catalyst technology, AMBERLYST™ BD20 specialty. When the FFA contents of oils were and wt%, the activity of Amberlyst 15 gradually decreased with recycling, whereas the activity of Amberlyst BD

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The method of claim 1wherein the combination of said homogeneous catalyst and said heterogeneous catalyst provide increased conversion relative to the use of either catalyst alone. One such esterification process nd20 free fatty acids to FAAEs with alcohols using homogenous catalysis catalyst and reactants have the same phase.

Homogenous catalysis provides excellent selectivity and activity. In one embodiment, the second reaction mixture 10 is washed with water before b20 a decanter In one embodiment the second reaction mixture 5 is washed with water before entering a decanter The operating conditions and provisions of the first reactor are as previously described.

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The total contact time of feedstock and methanol with MSA was approximately 73 minutes. US USB2 en The method of claim 27wherein at least one of additional alcohol and additional homogenous catalyst is added to said second reactor.

A method for producing esters comprising: In another embodiment, a portion of alcohol, water and homogenous catalyst 8 are removed from the first reaction mixture 3 contained in unit by decantation or centrifugation, leaving a principally dry reaction mixture 9.


In one embodiment the reaction is conducted using a 0.

Purification of glycerin obtained as a bioproduct from the transesterification of triglycerides in the synthesis of biofuel. Bv20 oils and animal fats and their by-products can contain considerable amounts of free fatty acids.

USB2 – Dual catalyst esterification – Google Patents

However, heterogeneous esterification activity is generally less than with homogeneous catalysts, and multiple stages or extreme operating bv20 are typically required to achieve acceptable conversions. After a prescribed residence time the reaction mixture exits the reactor having reduced free fatty acids compared to the feedstock entering the reactor. Sulfuric acid, p-toluene sulfonic acid, and other strong acid catalysts have been used for esterification, but process equipment corrosion, product contamination, and catalyst recovery, neutralization, disposal, health and safety concerns and continuous cost issues remain—especially for conversion of renewable feedstocks with high FFA content into biofuels.

Where methods and steps described above indicate certain events occurring in certain order, those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the ordering of certain steps may be modified and that such modifications are in accordance with the principles of the invention.

Continuous method for the heterogenically catalyzed esterification of fatty acids. In general about 2.

Potential causes of this steady deactivation include catalyst fouling and deactivation by proteins, phospholipids, metal ions, neutralization, chemical compounds i. The method of claim 1wherein the feedstock, alcohol, and homogeneous catalyst flow downward through said reactor.

In a different embodiment, the temperature, residence time, alcohol to FFA molar ratio, and other operating conditions are different for unit and unit What is claimed is: Fatty acid distillate with a free fatty acid content of In one embodiment the pressure is maintained between 0 and psig.


The method of claim 1wherein said homogenous catalyst comprises one of methanesulfonic acid, sulfuric amberlyat, phosphoric acid, and p-toluene sulfonic acid.

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In one embodiment, the homogenous catalyst described in the invention is b20 acid MSA. The method of claim 22 wherein the dry reaction mixture is a principally dry reaction mixture. The first reaction mixture 3 enters unit which may be a decanter, centrifuge, flash drum, vacuum distillation column or other separation unit. Combined homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic transesterification process for biodiesel production.

In one embodiment, the operating conditions in units and are substantially similar to those described previously for unit Without limiting the scope of the invention, one such resin is Amberlyst BD The reactor may be fitted with provisions to add and remove heterogeneous catalyst, including by means of motive fluid flow.

In another embodiment, the reaction pressure is maintained between 1 and psig.

The FFA esterification reaction is affected by temperature, molar ratio of alcohol to FFA, mass transfer limitations, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and reaction stoichiometry. In another embodiment method is repeated one or more times in series or parallel with method