دراسة في طبيعة المجتمع العراقي A Study of the Nature of Iraqi Society. by علي الوردي Ali al Wardi · Paperback. $$ In stock on August 28, Books shelved as ali-alwardi: خوارق اللاشعور by علي الوردي, شخصية الفرد العراقي by علي الوردي, مهزلة العقل البشري by علي الوردي, منطق ابن خلدون by علي ال. Ali al-Wardi is the author of Social Glimpses of Modern Iraqi History ( avg rating, 4 ratings, 0 reviews, published ) Ali al-Wardi’s books. Ali al-Wardi.
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Anthropologists believe that Man is the only creature capable of rational behaviour because he has a mind with which to think, a language with which to express himself and a hand with which to produce his daily needs.
These elements make him a rational human being; different from other living creatures. It is the instrument for generating and controlling thought, as well compelling it to act; it is also the power that allows meanings to be imagined, and propositions and syllogisms to be formed. It is different from sense perception in as far as it separates the form from the matter.
The mind is a power capable of understanding universals. All things have reasonable causes, though philosophers here have a disagreement. The rationalists believe that the mind is independent of experience because it tends to be spontaneous alwwrdi contemplative Descarteswhile the Empiricists John Locke alwwrdi David Hume claim that the mind develops through experience. Its role is not to expand knowledge but to purify it and cleanse it from illusions.
This Kantian assumption that sees the mind as a second nature to man was criticized by Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud and Charles Darwin, all of whom highlighted the role that motives, desires, reactions and interests play in steering the mind.
The mind is not a static essence; it is not a neutral instrument whose role is to think. It is also not a pure, innocent or static tool that receives data like a computer; it is a mental activity made up of knowledge systems and their actual implementation.
Ali al-Wardi (Author of Social Glimpses of Modern Iraqi History)
The mind is relative in time and space, and necessarily acquires its particular characteristics in proportion to the amount of knowledge it produces about the world, and in proportion to the amount of knowledge it generates. This is why the rationalists believed that the human mind is limited, and accused it alwardii being inadequate; beset by illusions and swayed by desires Al-Buleihi This is not a new idea.
This key discovery in the history of philosophical thought rallied all the effective criticisms in order to extricate Man from his ignorance and failure, to make him doubtful and to alert him to the fact that the chronic ignorance that controls his mind had never been analyzed, critiqued or reviewed.
The illusion of inherited perfection is obstructive to the human mind. One of the factors that distinguish rationalism is its conviction that the mind is inadequate and xli of making mistakes. The disasters that plagued the 20th century, including the two world wars, civil wars, colonialism and alwwardi disasters are but a result of this irrational control over the world. The opposite has happened, however; the wli role and function of the mind has become an attempt to find the means that serve the ends of each individual, at a given moment in time.
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This vision necessarily led to qlwardi similar view of Man as an object of control in his reciprocal social relationships. He believed that booms human mind, due to the environment, values, traditions, beliefs and interests that Man grows up with, is rather biased by nature, and these factors influence his thinking. He drew his ideas from three major sources:. Ibn Khaldoun studied human history realistically, isolated from the preaching style that had dominated social thought over several centuries.
He started from the premise that the old formal logic founded by Aristotle does not conform to reality. This allowed him to free himself of Aristotelian shackles, and to embark on a new path that helped him understand social life as boosk really was.
Al-Wardi discovered that Ibn Khaldoun was the only thinker to rebel against this idealistic way of thinking prevalent in Islam. Although his peers did not understand him at the time, he tried to dismantle Aristotelian logic and build a new one, based on changing social realities.
The logic pursued by the old philosophers was deficient in two ways: Ibn Khaldoun believed that the problematic of the formal method was linked to the alwardo of thinking which says that there are fixed intuitive bases in thought, or that there are constants on which formal logic is based, i. Aristotelian logic is linked to the old traditional methods of thought and demonstration. The old logic relied on the absolute truth in all things because it believed that truth was static, self sustaining and separate from objective circumstances and social relations.
Formal logic is deductive; it starts with the general and ends with the specific, in exact opposition to the modern inductive logic that starts with the specific and ends with the general. The problem with the formal logic is that its syllogism usually relies on axiomatic prerequisites deemed beyond doubt, and therefore needs no proof.
Ibn Khaldoun believed that truth was not constant but that it changed in line with changes in the condition of human civilization. Truth was not given in its final form but was amenable to change, unlike the Aristotelian logic that saw truth as constant and absolute and does not change in time or space.
He insisted that Man was the product of his environment and habits, and derived his morality from his society, because he is subject to social and economic conditions awlardi are not constant but relative to time and space.
Al-Wardi said that Booka Khaldoun saw human nature as inconstant and changeable in tandem with the social circumstances in which the human zlwardi lives, and this also applies to human society. Man derives his morality from society and, in turn, society is subject to its own social, economic and political circumstances.
He underlined the fact that the logic followed by Ibn Khaldoun had an influence on his theory, as did the intellectual and non-intellectual factors that helped him formulate his theory on human civilization and sociology. Al-Wardi criticizes and highlights the shortcomings of rationalism in all his writings, which he believed did not conform to modern scientific theories. He believed that the rationalists were wrong to conclude that human nature is an outcome of the mind, and that the mind is akin to a lofty gift, the role of which is to ascertain the truth.
They also thought that they could reform people by preaching, delivering speeches and giving advice; that they lived in ivory towers and had an idealistic view of society. This heritage is drawn from the old Greek philosophy that once had absolute trust in the human mind, and ascribed to it every social corruption.
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One of the negative aspects of rationalism is that it is also a product of the prevailing social alk in which human beings are reared, and through which their mental abilities develop. Freud — was the first in the modern era to develop a psychoanalytical theory that stresses the importance of instincts — the sexual instinct in particular — in shaping culture alwaddi personality.
If human behaviour is to be understood, it is necessary to understand what motivates it. If motives are internal mental states that regulate behaviour and give it meaning, then the rationality of a certain act could be ascertained in light of the motive that lies behind it, and offers an explanation for it. Often, however, the explanation is incomplete and does not alwsrdi for all the ensuing actions; the reason is the involvement of an unconscious process driven by the motives that work unconsciously within us, without us being aware of aldardi.
Separating motives from self-consciousness, in particular, allows for the radical expansion of the scope of explanations based on motives. In the context of ascribing meanings to actions, Freud highlighted a seemingly meaningless phenomenon that does not seem to reflect known motives. For example, when we explain a dream or make a slip of api tongue, we usually fail to understand the motive or motives behind it.
Freud said that this was not just a superficial phenomenon. There are, in fact, aoi that reveal the complete meaning behind these seemingly random occurrences, although the person who commits them is not aware of them.
These two basic instincts both repel and attract each other simultaneously, and human behaviour is the outcome of either the struggle or cooperation between them.
He believed that the thinkers that preceded Freud believed that Man had one mind that controlled his actions and guided his behaviour, and if he deviated they blamed that mind and called on him to see reason and to learn his lesson, and if he failed, he deserved punishment.
This is why api saw Man as neither purely good nor purely bad, but good and bad at the alwadri time. This theory demolished the logical principle that classified people into two opposing types; one good with no inherit evil, and the other bad with no inherit good. This is why they presented logical explanations for all human behaviour, based on consciousness and thought and its logical justification.
Mannheim underlines the idea that different groups see the truth from one side only, boojs that different interests, beliefs and values inevitably lead each group to see the truth from a different perspective. This, in turn, makes each of these groups irrevocably bools that it is right and its adversaries are wrong, which is exactly from bookd disagreements among people arise.
Social scientists in the field of social theory of knowledge pointed out to the objective truth and its susceptibility to the influences of social, economic and psychological conditions, and concluded that the human mind is not an instrument fashioned to search for the truth, since it is most probably encapsulated within frameworks moulded by society.
This is why it is not easy for people to see the objective truth in a similar manner if their circumstances, interests and social methods are different. According to Karl Mannheim, knowledge is a reflection of the social hierarchy; he sees truth as both subjective and objective at the same time, i. Mannheim also believes that the truth exists beyond the human mind and has several facets, which is why the mind does not have a complete picture of it.
The mind absorbs only part of the external reality, then adds to itself another part to complete the picture in accordance with how the mind imagines that picture to be.
In this, Iraqi alqardi is the exact opposite of the advanced industrial society that sees the truth from several angles because of its dynamism, openness and constant evolution due to its scientific and technical progress, widespread means of communication and alwaddi media.
This does alward mean that Al-Wardi did not believe, however, in the existence of facts. It was a subject he addressed in most of his books, with a view to understanding historical and social development, and the personality of the Iraqi individual. Much had been all on the subject, including some contradictory statements. The Shia agreed with them on that aspect. Al-Wardi tended to believe that in most of his actions Man, instead of being free is determined by a metaphysical power rather alwaardi an unconscious power.
The reason is that Man is first guided by the deeper or unconscious mind, before the discerning mind intervenes apwardi justify his actions. As far as Al-Wardi is concerned, personality is the centre-point of human nature; a mystery that the world has so far failed to alwagdi. Human nature is an organized collection of ideas, temperaments, tendencies and habits that distinguish one person from another and an outcome of the interaction between nature and nurture, or natural bokos and social norms.
Rather than a natural gift, personality is an acquired, particularly human characteristic, which Man inherits from his fathers and forefathers. It stems from and develops within the confines of society, whereby the initial group among which a child is reared, plays an important part in shaping his personality.
For Al-Wardi, although the ancient philosophers saw Man as a rational animal, we have now come to realize that Man is not, in fact, as rational as rationalist Greek philosophy portrayed him to be. Man calls for zlwardi truth only when he is in harmony with his ego, which is what Al-Wardi believed people should keep in mind when dealing with others. He blames this failure on an innate deficiency in the makeup of the human mind and its limited ability.
According to Al-Wardi, Ibn Tufail did not offer anything new about the alwardk. Modern scientific research has, however, disproved this opinion; the mind only grows and matures in society. If a human being is born and raised among the animals he becomes an animal like them. Al-Wardi said that Man is an animal before being a human being, and was endowed by a number of distinguishing factors chief among which is the mind.
Moreover, human nature has not changed despite the considerable change alu values, habits and social beliefs, whereby Man has remained the same prejudiced animal since time immemorial. Furthermore, although philosophers agree that the mind is what distinguishes Man from the animals, they disagree about its identification and limitations.
Not only does it invent the weapons with which to kill its enemies, it provides the excuses and rationales that justify killing them. He believed that the human mind is distinctive by nature. Al-Wardi compares the unconscious power that constrains the mind alwardu the atmospheric pressure whose considerable weight we bear, without our being aware of it, except if we move to a location with a different atmospheric pressure.
This also applies to the human mind; it does not feel the weight of the mental framework constraining it, except if it moves to another society and culture. This is when it realizes that there are ideas, booos and concepts different to those it invented. This mental framework is drawn from society that imposes on the human being a specific set of social and cultural rules and values; if anyone violates these rules and values, feelings of aggression are generated because of the deeply embedded believe that truth and justice is on its side.
Al-Wardi said that this mental framework is not understood, and the reason why there is resistance to any new trend; there is initial resistance, but then ultimately this gives way to alii. The ancient philosophers believed that Man was rational and free-thinking and followed the path of his choice, through relying on the old logic and on pure thought.
Their aim was to booke the nature and hearts of people through sermons; but they have failed to realize that they were asking for the impossible, since their sermons fell on deaf ears. Moreover, socially changing ai attributes would be possible only if the social conditions that motivated them changed too. He supported this claim with a number of examples, including how some preachers ask the people to cleanse themselves of hatred, envy, egotism and hypocrisy, yet they themselves are more selfish, envious and hypocritical.
It is from this perspective that Al-Wardi severely criticized the religious figures who used the old formal logic to justify alwarid opinions. People who preached that the sooner Man amended his ways that his heart would be cleansed of its hatred and selfishness, and overnight he would become a happy contented zlwardi.
Al-Wardi pointed out that the problem with this point of view was the belief that the human soul could be washed clean with soap and water to remove the dirt that had stuck to it.