年10月21日 3G SYSTRA 3G System Training Service Description CTXX Issue en Nokia Networks Oy 错误！使用“开始” 应用于要在此处显示的文字. 3G SYSTRA. Introduction to 3G & UMTS Identify what is meant by the term 3G and briefly outline the work completed by the specification bodies. Furthermore. Directory: 3G/4G develop. Plat: PDF Size: KB Downloads: 4. Upload time: Uploader: joyraj. Description: This book on 3G system.
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In city areas, cells are usually smaller than in the countryside. Note that the network picture below contains equipment from a typical GSM network, some of which is not included in the GSM specifications. Nokia City Talk and Intratalk both have similar features and can be a one or two cabinet version. The basic function of the MSC is the switching of telephone calls.
3G SYSTRA – Overview to UMTS Network Planning & Radio Resource Management
Locating the subscriber This locates a subscriber before establishing a call. The mobile then moves to the allocated dedicated channel for further transactions with the network. Since the distance between two antennas is a few metres, it can only be implemented at the Base Transceiver Station.
Normal bursts and access bursts As you can see, the normal burst contains a training sequence and an SB Stealing Bit. The next steps are registration and authentication. Information is sent in packets along whichever route is available at the time. With such levels of interference, complex equalisation techniques are required with GMSK. In this context, speech processing refers to all the functions the BTS performs in order to guarantee an error-free connection between the MS and the BTS.
After completing the module, the participant should be able to: They were all doing the same task, but in a different way. All these three elements are basically databases that hold various types of information. Paging a subscriber for mobile terminated calls. The generation and function of the HON are explained in the following text. It monitors the exchange continuously and starts recovery procedures if errors occur. These advantages can be summarised as follows: An essential part of the planning of microwave links is to make sure that it is possible to get free line of sight between different elements for instance between BTS and BSC sites.
00_Table of Contents 3G SYSTRA(Jan-06)
In order to keep track of its location, the mobile stores the ID of the area in which it is currently registered. This document is intended for the use of Nokia Networks’ customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it sytsra be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Nokia Networks.
However, Nokia Networks has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions.
In the early days of telecommunication history, switching sydtra were huge, cumbersome and not so effective, requiring manual switching. A Virtual connection uses packet type switching principles and the connection only exists when packets or messages are being transferred.
Mobility management This maintains information about the location of the subscriber. However, what if these tasks were to be distributed among many different computers? By December there were 69 GSM networks in operation. Let us now take a closer look at the different logical channels and their functions.
Ki is an authentication key with a length of 32 hexadecimal digits. Sydtra a result of a successful registration, the network sends the mobile station two numbers that are stored in the SIM Subscriber Identity Module card of the mobile station.
The first is a sysrra originating from the fixed network. If there are no restrictions defined by the operators, then: In the mobile network the called subscriber is normally also charged for the so called roaming leg, because A does not necessarily know where B is systrx.
As a consequence of this answer, a point to point connection is established. TMSI acknowledgement Figure The timing advance is adapted for these distances that is the ability of the mobile station to send the bursts wystra advance so that they arrive in the BTS in the right timeslot. If the synchronisation chain is not working correctly, calls may be cut or the call quality may not be the best possible.
The HLR checks its database to determine the current location of the called subscriber. Also part of the Base Station Subsystem is the Transcoder. With all its dimensions around 50 cm, it can fit virtually anywhere. The other 6 sysrta are effectively wasted.
Charging records can be generated in: Location registration takes place when a mobile station is turned on. They are used to set up a point to point connection.
If we go back to the analogy of the army, the road is the radio carrier frequency, the vehicle is the TDMA frame and the seats in each vehicle are the TDMA timeslots. Using this mathematical model, the transmitted bits sysrra estimated based on the received bits.
The modulation scheme used in GSM is predominantly based on: If the called subscriber is registered in a location area belonging to his home network, the connection is established as explained in the previous chapter and the calling subscriber pays for the call.
It is also necessary to define the capacity requirements. The registration in Madrid is cancelled, registration in Paris is made, and the location data in the Home Register is brought up-to-date.
SYSTRA Training Document | Muhammad Suleman Khan –
In such a case, we talk about international roaming leg, which refers to the connection between the home network and the subscriber via a foreign network. Thus a GSM user syxtra use any of the methods available to him as shown in the figure below. It was not possible to have many different signalling messages. Speech encryption is carried out between the BTS and the mobile station. As an example, take a person who has a subscription for two basic services, Speech and Group 3 fax.